Jul 24, 2017

Why is nitrogen important to living systems?

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Biology Assignment: Bio 102 wk 2 slp. Crude Oil Deposits in Oceans and the Role of Photosynthesis


please follow the instructions on the attached document there is additional information


SLP Assignment Overview

We will continue to analyze our study conducted in the oceans of the Gulf of Mexico in the article by Urakawa et al (2012), A sensitive crude oil bioassay indicates that oil spills potentially induce a change of major nitrifying prokaryotes from the Archaea to the Bacteria.

As you analyze the results in this study, think back to the evolution of life on our planet and the videos you watched in Module 1. One theory of the evolution of life suggests that life evolved in a chemical “soup” of ingredients that under the right conditions facilitated the collection of molecules into primitive cells. In order to maintain organization, these primitive cells needed to acquire resources from their oceanic environment, harvest the energy from these sources, and use it to maintain the structures that worked well and build new structures to accomplish future work and survival. This process is termed “metabolism,” and organisms have evolved many strategies in order to accomplish life-sustaining chemical transformations.

In order to continue your analyses, you must first be able to explain some of the important metabolic pathways described in the study. In this SLP assignment you will compare chemotrophic metabolic pathways to photosynthesis.

Write a 2 page paper that addresses each of the following topics. Use subtitles and headings to organize your paper. Research your answers to the questions below using scholarly sources, including national, university, and government websites, publications, and scientific journals. Cite your references throughout, and include a references section at the end.

  1. Begin by describing the origin of crude oil deposits in the ocean. What role did photosynthesis play in this process?
  2. Using full sentences in paragraph format define: 

    The difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph

    The relationship between a photosynthetic autotroph and a chemotrophic autotroph

    Ammonia oxidation
  3. Why is nitrogen important to living systems?
  4. How are these metabolic pathways similar to photosynthesis?
  5. From the Urakawa et al. (2012) paper: Why was nitrite production used to measure the activity of the microbes in the study?
  6. What is a bioassay? Why did the scientists use it in this study?
  7. Which organisms showed sensitivity to oil toxicity? What happened to nitrite production in these organisms? How did nitrite production relate to growth?
Biology AssignmentName:Institution:Course Title:Instructor:Date:Biology Assignment1.0 Crude Oil Deposits in Oceans and the Role of PhotosynthesisCrude oil is a black-brown liquid that is found in the earth`s crust which contains majorly of hydrocarbons (50-90% in composition), organic compounds such as, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur (about 6-10%) and metals like copper and iron taking less than 1% of the composition total(oilprice.com, 2009). It is formed as a consequence of a process that involves the death of algae, planktons and other forms of marine life which deposit at the sea floor. This piling up of partially decomposed or decomposing organic material is covered by layers of mud, sediments and silt resulting to the formation of strata over the years. Due the pressure exerted on this matter by mass of water above, it becomes compacted leading to the formation of a substance known as kerogen. Kerogen is an intricate combination of hydrocarbons that under the right pressure and correct temperature lead to the formation of oil (eyrie.shef.ac.uk, n.d). The initial process of crude oil formation is the formation of the organic material bulk through the process of photosynthesis. This is achieved when photoautotrophs i.e. organisms that make their individual food using photosynthesis, use the sunlight to photolyse water and thereafter use the products in combination with carbon (IV) oxide to manufacture complex organic molecules such glucose. These molecules contain a hydrocarbon core. The crude oil formation therefore, can be directly linked to the process of crude oil formation and c...

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