Jul 25, 2017

what types of enslavement does Winant include under what he calls the "micro-level" of debt peonage?

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Modern Theories


Must Read Unit 13, Unit 14, and Unit 15 and answer the following questions in essay format and choose 12 words to define out of the list provided. I have e-mailed a copy of the readings to the support team as the file is too large to attach to this order. REMEMBER YOU MUST READ ONLY UNITS 13, 14 AND 15 of the selected readings. ALL WORK MUST CONTAIN IN TEXT CITATION (REFERENCES) WITH A BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE AT THE END. Unit 13: 1. what types of enslavement does Winant include under what he calls the "micro-level" of debt peonage? 2. What does Winant mean by macro-level debt peonage? 3. Why does he consider contemporary debt peonage to be racialized form of slavery? 4. For Winant, why is it important to end the split between "free" and "unfree" laboir, both conceptually and politically? Unit 14 5. In order to expand on his theory concerning the transformative potential of the environmental movement, Castells introduces two new concepts- the "space of flows" and the "space of places". In your own words, what is the "space of flows." 6. In your own words what is the "space of places"? 7. Why does the environmental movements emphasis on the "space of places" constitute a challenge to a basic lever of the new power system? Unit 15 8. What does Castells mean by self-programmable labour and generic labour? 9. Castells argues that the network society is characterized by "a new economy" in which "the key transformation is the individualization of labour." What does he mean by the individualization of labour? 10. In your opinion what implications does this transformation have for the labour movement/unions? CHOOSE 12 WORDS TO DEFINE FROM THE FOLLOWING LIST: Bonded labour Debt peonage (micro-level) Debt peonage (macro-level) Fair trade Forced labour Prison-industrial complex Structural adjustment War slavery world bank clock time eco-feminism glacial time realism reductionist science risk society social construction (of nature) space of flows space of places timeless time deductive generic labour hypertext inductive network network society self-programmable labour Ask support to forward you the pdf reading

Modern TheoriesNameInstitution AffiliationCourseDate of SubmissionQuestion 1In the Babylon system: The continuity of Slavery, Winant, (1986) articulates that the global crisis of debt espionage is one form of modern racial slavery. This happens in the sense of domination or exploitation, imposed unfreedom, towards people of a particular race, especially those from the southern part of the world (282). Although the governments in such countries may be happy to receive loans, and credits from the West, in most cases, it is the citizens of such countries who have to struggle in paying for the loans. Foreign loans are intended to better the lives of individuals in the specific countries. However, much of the aid or loans end up in the hands of some elite officials in the country. This means that citizens are deprived of such intended benefit. Additionally, a large amount of this money is again transferred to foreign bank accounts and investments. While the foreign loans end up becoming private assets, the debts accrued from such loans remain public, and the African citizens are held accountable to repay these debts through their governments (p284).It is apparent that many of such states may be unable to repay such loans and debts. However,” loan pushing” by private entities such as the World Bank and other financial institutions, where priority is considered to lending targets over long term projection for repayment, has resulted into many countries to delve more deeper in repaying the debt. Just taking an example of Zimbabwe, the nation`s external debt surpasses its gross domestic products by 186% according to analysts (p284).Question 2What does Winant mean by macro-level debt peonage?According to Winant, themes such as super exploitation of labor, plunder and transition from chattellized mass labor to debt peonage ought to be considered at both the macro and micro- social level. At the Macro level, endemic and large-scale debt indebtedness appears to be widespread throughout the Southern world such as Africa, Southern Asia, and Latin America (Winant, 1986, p282). These world regions according to Winant have continued to experience debt crises in both the period superseding World War 2 and the modern era. What Winant means in macro level debt peonage is the massive effect of debt peonage slavery in nations especially those in Africa, Southeast Asia and Latin America which has become so perverse. For instance, Winant argues that the annual African debt in 2002 was a whopping 125%. On the other hand, the figure for Asia was 28%, and 42% for Latin America. Poor countries have become heavily indebted to the extent of relying on earnings from experts in paying for their international debt (Winant, 1986, p282)Question 3Winant considers the modern debt peonage as...

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