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What might be made about individual member of he group and the group as a whole

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Reading gap between wealthy and poor students widens


Literature and Language: Reading gap between wealthy and poor students widens.

Reading gap between wealthy and poor students widens, study says

By Alessandra Malito, NBC News, January 28, 2014
The gap in reading proficiency between lower-and higher-income fourth graders has grown by 20 percent in the past decade, says a new report by the Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Eighty percent of lower-income fourth-graders do not read at their grade level compared to 49 percent of their wealthier counterparts, according to the report, "Early Reading Proficiency in the United States," which was released on Tuesday and is based on data from the most recent National Assessment of Educational Progress.

Overall, although improvements have been made in the last 10 years, 66 percent of all fourth graders are not proficient in reading, a level the researchers called "unacceptably low in an economic environment that requires increasing levels of education and skills for family-sustaining jobs."

By 2020, the United States is expected to face a shortage of 1.5 million workers with college degrees and a surplus of 6 million unemployed people without a high school diploma, the report says.

"The research is pretty clear - grade level reading by the end of third grade is a pretty good predictor of which children will have the most success in middle school and high school, and which children will end up graduating from high school," said Ralph Smith, senior vice president of the Annie E. Casey Foundation. "Kids who read on grade level by the end of third grade can graduate from high school at higher rates and this includes low-income children."

That can make all the difference for a child`s future prospects, Smith said. "In the world we live in today, high school graduation is the portal to college and careers and post-secondary credentials needed to succeed in a global economy, to succeed in military service, to succeed in college and in many respects to succeed in life."

need for future success. To reach these milestones, children need to be physically healthy, socially and emotionally on track and exposed to language as often as possible, research shows.

"There`s what we call an inconvenient truth: That there is a significant number of kids who will find it difficult to succeed even in good schools with effective teachers," Smith said. "Those are the kids who start out so far behind that it is difficult if not impossible for them to catch up by third grade."

The key to preventing kids from falling behind later on, he said, is to make sure that fewer start kindergarten with undetected and untreated social-emotional challenges, developmental delays, hearing and vision impairment and other correctable health issues.

In nearly every state, the reading gap between lower- and higher-income students increased in the last 10 years. In 12 states and the District of Columbia, the gap widened by more than 30 percent, with the largest increases in D.C., Hawaii and Tennessee.

Disparities are also apparent among the five largest racial groups. According to the study, 83 percent of black students, 81 percent of Latino students, 78 percent of American Indian students, 55 percent of white students and 49 percent of Asian students are not proficient.

Students who are dual-language learners had a significantly higher percentage of non-proficiency in reading with 93 percent. According to the study, dual-language learners are one of only a few groups that did not see an improvement in the last 10 years. Children with disabilities had a rate of 89 percent.
According to the Casey Foundation report, by the time children are 8-years-old, especially those living in low-income families, many have not met the developmental "milestones" they

double space , used Reading gap between wealthy and poor students widens study says by Alessandra Malito NBC News January 28, 2014, 1. What are the target group sample and relevant to property be drawn by the reader, 3. What might be made about individual member of he group and the group as a whole ? 4, After having read the article what is the conclusion might be drawn to the reader?

Student NameLiterature and Language: Reading gap between wealthy and poor students widens.Tutor NameDateThe Target SampleThe sample target group in this study includes young children ranging from kindergarten level up to 4th grade. The sample, in addition, includes children from different racial backgrounds that are; Latin Americans, Indian American, Asian, and Black American students. In addition, the target sample population also includes individuals who are single and dual language learners and also those kids with physical and psychological health problems. The sample was studied longitudinally to determine how early learning proficiency determined an individual`s future capabilities and outcomes. Therefore, the same sample was used in future.Properties Drawn From the SampleTo acquire the relevant sample population for study, several properties have to be present within the sample population that is relevant for conducting such a study. The properties present in the target sample include; age, economic status, race, health issues (physical and psychological), and the languages spoken by the participants, and level of education.The age here was taken to be between 6-10 years a period when a child should be in kindergarten. Economic status was considered to be the level of income while the races used were the Black Americans, Asian Americans, American Indians, and the white American population. In addition, health properties considered here were both physical and psychological that included: physical health, social and emotional well being, developmental delays, visual and other health issues that could be corrected. Finally, the language property is also present and it based on whether the participant is a single or dual language speaker...

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