Jul 28, 2017

What does my audience really need to know from the longer document, and why should they care?

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Executive Summary of a Proposal


I have a simple summary and a word doc with requirements. there is a sample of the summary in the "Writing Executive summery" pdf. There is a simple of this summary in the "writing Executive summary" pdf. and Hope you can carefully read those requirements. If you have any question you can leave me a message





Mary Munter, from her text, Guide to Managerial Communication (2006) offers these comments about writing executive summaries:

Executive summary or abstract:  Summarizes the main ideas.  Should make sense on its own, because many readers will read only this part.  Should summarize your conclusions, recommendations, or implementation steps, not just say, ‘Five conclusions are reached’” (160).



  • No more than 1 page
  • Include the following: problem/need and supporting evidence; brief description of grantee; objectives, solution, benefits, general implementation and costs.
  • Use headings, subheadings, and other document design features to achieve high skim value.



  • Executive summaries are short, usually 1 or 2 pages.  For longer documents, business writing experts agree that the executive summary should not exceed 10% of the original in length.
  • Executive summaries precede the document they summarize and may be the only document an executive audience reads.
  • An executive summary aims to provide a specific snapshot of the most important findings, key points of analysis, conclusions, recommendations, and implications for implementation included in the longer report or proposal, “so that the reader can base an educated business decision on the summary alone” (Sorensen 162).
  • An executive summary is NOT an introduction. It gives the entire story in a miniature form that entices the reader to read the complete report or to act.



This website provides useful information for writing an effective executive summary:







The following guidelines for writing executive summaries are divided into three sections: planning, drafting, and revising.


  1. Write and revise an excellent report or proposal.  A poorly written longer document will elicit a poorly written executive summary.
  2. Write the executive summary after you have completed drafting and revising the longer document.  In this way, you will avoid treating the executive summary as an introduction, and you will incorporate specific insights gained later in your writing process.
  3. Ask, “What does my audience really need to know from the longer document, and why should they care?”
  4. Outline the key points (problem identification, findings, analysis, recommendations, implications) you will cover in the executive summary.


  1. Create a sense of exigency (in the readers’ minds) for the findings, analysis, recommendations, and implications which follow in the executive summary.
  2. Use headings, subheadings, and other document design features to achieve high skim value.
  3. Avoid information overload.  For example, avoid restating common company information, providing a lengthy overview of methodologies, copying and pasting passages from the original, or creating a laundry list of points without explanations of their relevance.
  4. Build a credible case for the recommendations.  Often credibility comes from identifying the right problems, reporting and analyzing solid evidence, and aligning your recommendations with shared assumptions such as the company vision, mission, and culture.
  5. Include your specific recommendations (solution); do not just allude to them. 

10.  Include the key implications or benefits of implementing your recommendations.


11.  Cycle your executive summary through outside readers and ask them if the ES provides a convincing rationale (from the company’s point of view) for the recommendations and implications.

12.  Revise, edit, and proofread carefully based upon the comments you receive and your own judgments.  A misspelled word, incomplete sentence, or imprecise phrase will reduce your credibility.

13.  Make every word count by writing concise, active sentences and avoiding academic jargon.

14.  Create a positive tone throughout.




The following is an example of an executive summary written for a 20-page business plan.



Trailhead Adventures

Executive Summary

Concept Description
Trailhead Adventures, located in Eugene, Oregon, offers thrilling guided mountain bike tours, distinctive mountain bikes for purchase, bike rentals, and repairs. 

Oregon is well known for its world-class mountain trails and breathtaking scenery. Trailhead Adventures will utilize this valuable resource by offering Eugene residents and visitors the unprecedented chance to explore the local scenery with professional guides.

Solution: Trailhead Adventures offers four unique services:

Guided Mountain Bike Tours: Customers have the opportunity to enjoy a variety of exhilarating mountain bike tours that are led by an experienced cyclist. Tours of varying difficulty are offered on a weekly basis year round.

Mountain Bike Rentals: Individuals who do not own a mountain bike or want to try out a top-of-the-line bike can rent one for a daily fee plus deposit.

Retail: Over 500 quality products will be available for purchase at Trailhead Adventures including complete mountain bikes, helmets, clothing, fenders, and parts. We also offer customers the option to special order merchandise that we do not carry in our store. 

Repair Services: Bicycle repairs will be competitively priced and completed by an experienced mechanic.  We aim to have next day turnaround on most repairs.

Trailhead Adventures offers only the finest quality mountain bicycles and accessories available.  Our target market is males ages 11-34 that enjoy spending time outdoors and like challenges.  Customers will perceive our products and services as the highest quality available in the area.  Our customer service will be second to none and will be a driver of repeat business.

All segments of Trailhead Adventures will break even before or during year 2.  The initial investment of $120,000 has already been raised. 

Kevin C. is the manager and owner of Trailhead Adventures.  He tested mountain bikes for Giant for three years and has logged over 5,000 miles on various mountain trails. He will graduate in June from the University of Oregon Honors College with a B.A. in Business Administration and concentration in Entrepreneurship.  In addition Trailhead Adventures will hire two employees, and will receive additional assistance from investors.


Adapted from How to Write an Executive Summary by Ron Severson, 2006

SummaryNameUniversityDateExecutive Summary of a ProposalIn the recent years, Gateway High School which is located in the Springfield School District has been experiencing too many drop outs. The dropout rates within the school could reduce by establishing a successful program. They intend to address the issue by partnering with Options Counseling and Family Services.ProblemThe state of Oregon has had decreasing number of graduates from its high schools, experiencing the fourth lowest graduation rate in the nation during the 2011-2012 school years. The state had a graduation rate of 68% with a total of 14,900 dropouts. Gateway High School, which specializes in educating troubled students has many students seeking counselling but there is not enough time for the counselor to meet...

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