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Why is it important to consider the influence of cultural and institutional contexts in designing HRM?

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HRM in a Transnational Enterprise and Ethnocentric Orientation

INSTRUCTIONS:

DRAFT IS REQUIRED ON SUNDAY OR MAXIMUM IN 5 DAYS





• Individual essay 70% (3,000 words; individual assignment) – Final piece of assessment: This task is based on learning outcomes 1 to 6 although each outcome is not necessarily given equal weighting.



Students will be expected to demonstrate a level of critical thinking appropriate to Master’s level of study. It is important that all regulations are adhered to regarding assessment word limits as penalties do apply if limits are exceeded. In essence, you will only be awarded a grade on the content of your assessment up to the word limit and anything past that will be discounted. The word limit is as set out in the assessment task and is not subject to variation. The limit excludes the list of references, bibliography, footnotes, appendices and details of the assessment task. The mark to be awarded will, therefore, be that which applies at this word limit.



There will be some opportunities built into the programme for you to gain formative assessment from your tutor in some aspects of the work relevant to the assignment.



5.2 Assessment brief(s) Group presentation

The presentation groups will comprise two to five students per group. Group presentations will be on the topic (case studies, articles etc.) described in seminar activity for the respective week. Each group will be allocated 20 to 25 minutes per presentation, followed



by five minutes for Q&A. Students will need to critically discuss/assess relevant theories and examples in their presentation to support their arguments.



At the end of the presentation, the presenters will need to lead a class activity for 5-10 minutes, such as a quiz, MCQs, debate etc.



Students must rehearse in their own time before delivering the presentation. They must finish their presentation within the given time limit.



Students will need to develop their presentation using PowerPoint and bring the presentation on more than one media, e.g., a USB (memory stick) and email.

As a good practice, each group needs to email their presentation to themselves and their seminar leader at least 24 hours before the presentation.



Each group will need to submit a printed copy, before they start their presentation, to the seminar leader for formal assessment and record keeping.



All students must study the case study/seminar activity and be able to discuss and answer any relevant questions during seminar sessions.



Presentations should include:

- On the first slide, write the title of presentation, date of presentation, name and code of module, seminar group number

- On the second slide, write full name, student ID and login of each student

- On third slide, clear outline of the presentation’s structure

- Provide in text citations on each slide and a list of references at the end

- Refer to latest academic journal articles published in the last three years.

- Use APA style of references

- Use some but not too many internet resources (except academic journals)

- Insert a relevant video clip (no longer than three minutes)

- Number all slides (i.e. insert page number or slide number)

- Staple the printed copy for the instructor



At the end of the presentation, design and lead a class activity for 5-10 minutes, such as a quiz, MCQs, debate etc.



Presentations should:

• Be timed to last within the time limit.

• Include all members of the presenting group

• Focused on the key topic with clear arguments

• Provide an answer to the class/case question

• Be engaging. Ask questions, use organisational examples etc. to stimulate further discussion from the audience

• Be based upon wider academic journal articles than the lecture notes

• Make use of hand-outs

• Be practised beforehand so that presenters are fluent, confident and above all within the available time

• Be interesting!!!





Individual assignment



The written assignment (essay) will be worth 70% of the total mark. You are required to submit an electronic copy of your assignment through Turnitin on the online Module web site (Blackboard/UniLearn) by the deadline.



You are required to submit ONE written assignment for this course. The indicative word limit for assignment is 3,000 words, with the following sections (where applicable): introduction, literature review, research methodology (if applicable), organisational examples, discussion, recommendations, conclusion. The word count does not include references and appendices.



The assignment must include a comprehensive review of the relevant dimension of the IHRM literature with specific reference to relevant organisational examples.



Choose one topic from the following:



1. Outline the range of theoretical approaches to IHRM. Critically evaluate these approaches with relevant organisational examples.



2. Why is it important to consider the influence of cultural and institutional contexts in designing HRM? Critically discuss in the light of relevant theories and organisational examples.



3. How does HRM in a transnational enterprise differ from HRM in companies that operate under a more ethnocentric orientation? Critically evaluate theoretical concepts and provide organisational examples to support your arguments.



4. What are the key issues in global reward management as distinct from domestic reward management systems? Critically evaluate relevant concepts and include organisational examples.



5. How can cultural diversity in MNCs be improved? Critically discuss in the light of relevant theories and organisational examples.





The marking criteria for the essay are given at the end of this module handbook. Overall, we will be looking for the following:



1. A well-written, well-presented, clearly structured, well-argued and well cited piece of work.

2. The demonstration that you have understood and applied relevant theories in your answer.

3. Evidence that you have drawn on some real, organisational examples to illustrate the theories under discussion. It is preferable to present a minimum of three different organisational examples in your essay. It is important that you refer to the sources of these examples.

4. The essay must comprise at least 30-40% theoretical review and 30-40% organisational examples with the rest dedicated to introduction, method (if applicable), recommendation and conclusion.

5. The essay’s introductory section must clearly state the aims and objectives of the essay, a brief overview of the theoretical framework and organisational examples provided with an overview of the essay’s structure or outline.

6. Critical analysis and insight. It is important not to just describe your views, but rather you need to weigh up one argument against another, using academic sources, and then come to a considered view based on the available evidence.

7. Evidence that you have read and understood a range of academic journal articles. It is not enough to rely solely on textbooks for your assignment. We are expecting you to do some independent research to find relevant articles.

8. The assignment should have a clear, logical structure, a competent level of English and full APA-style referencing.



9. On the cover page of the essay, write the full title of the essay, date of submission, your full name and student login/ID, title and code of the module

10. Provide in text citations on every page and paragraph (where possible and needed) and a list of references at the end. Refer to the latest academic journal articles published in the last three years. Do not provide references as footnotes.

11. Use some but not too many internet resources. The citation of relevant academic journals is very important.



An opportunity to discuss your progress with the essay assignment is given during your seminars. Please ensure that you have made sufficient progress with your assignment to make productive use of these sessions. Essays and presentations are marked using an assessment matrix.



Your assignment (essay) will be subjected to an automatic electronic check (Turnitin). This check will alert the teaching team as to whether your essay was written wholly by yourself or not. If you have been found to have plagiarised your written work, your case will be referred to the appropriate academic committee for disciplinary action.



Assessment criteria



Grad e Mark Range Postgraduate Assessment Criteria

A 90-100 Superior work demonstrating outstanding knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate at Master’s level. All the learning outcomes have been met, most at a high level. Excellent use of primary and secondary materials from a wide and varied range of sources. Within the work there is development of analysis and structure of argument; critical evaluation of theory that utilises creative use of appropriate theory, research methodology and findings; presentation of the work is appropriate for the intended audience.

A 80-89 Outstanding work demonstrating outstanding knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate at Master’s level. All the learning outcomes have been met, most at a high level. Excellent use of primary and secondary materials from a wide and varied range of sources. Within the work there is development of analysis and structure of argument; critical evaluation of theory that utilises creative use of appropriate theory, research methodology and findings; presentation of the work is appropriate for the intended audience.

A 70-79 Excellent work demonstrating excellent knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate at Master’s level. All the learning outcomes have been met, most at a high level. Excellent use of primary and secondary materials from a wide and varied range of sources. Within the work there is development of analysis and structure of argument; critical evaluation of theory that utilises creative use of appropriate theory, research methodology and findings; presentation of the work is appropriate for the intended audience.

B 60 –

69 Commendable work demonstrating a high level of knowledge appropriate at Master’s level. All of the learning outcomes have been met, many at a high level. Good use of current research materials. Within the work there is development of analysis and structure of argument; critical evaluation of theory, research methodology and findings; presentation of the work is appropriate for the intended audience.

C 50 –

59 Average work demonstrating evidence of knowledge, understanding and skills that are appropriate at Master’s level. All the learning outcomes have been met. Sound use of research materials. Within the work there is development of analysis and structure of argument; evaluation of theory, research methodology and findings; presentation of the work is appropriate for the intended audience.



D 40 – Satisfactory work demonstrating evidence of knowledge, understanding and

49 skills that is only barely appropriate at Master’s level. The learning

outcomes have either all been met, or there is there is strength elsewhere.

Satisfactory use of research materials. Within the work there is adequate

development of analysis and structure of argument; evaluation of theory,

research methodology and findings; presentation of the work is appropriate

for the intended audience

R 30 – Work that is unsatisfactory in providing evidence of knowledge,

39 understanding and skills that are appropriate at Master’s level. A majority of

the learning outcomes have been met and some are nearly satisfied. Some

satisfactory use of research material. Within the work there is some but

less than satisfactory knowledge, understanding and skills that are

appropriate at Master’s level

F 29 or less Work that is not acceptable, not submitted and at the lowest level indicating evidence of a serious academic offence. There is little evidence of knowledge, understanding and skills that are appropriate at Master’s level. Few of the learning outcomes have been met. Little or no use of research material or use that is unethical. Within the work there is development of analysis and structure of argument; evaluation of theory, research methodology and findings; presentation of the work is appropriate for the intended audience.

For full information, see: http://www.hud.ac.uk/media/universityofhuddersfield/content/documents/registry/regulationsandpolicies/Section%20E%202014%20v2.pdf







5.3 Assessment deadlines



Element of assessment Submission method Submission date Receipt issued Date work and feedback returned

Individual essay submitted Thursday 17 29 January 2016

assignment electronically December 2015 

UniLearn via 

Turnitin 

Group Class See seminar dates On or around 29

assignments presentation above; The group January 2016

s presentation will be 

due in the allocated 

seminar session 

announced by the 

tutor/ seminar leader. 



The University regards any action by a student that may result in an unfair academic advantage as a serious offence. It is your responsibility to ensure at all times that the assessments you complete are entirely your own work and that you have used the relevant referencing technique correctly and in full. The full set of regulations which govern Academic Integrity can be found under Section, Assessment Regulations 3 and 4: http://www2.hud.ac.uk/registry/students_handbook.php



Further information on academic integrity, including an overview of the support available for referencing, can be found within your course handbook; it is important that you familiarise yourself with this information.



It is important that you keep a copy of all of the work you submit for assessment. You are strongly advised to use the electronic storage system provided by the University.



If you are not able to submit by the deadline, you must inform your Course Leader. Depending on the circumstances, you may need to ask for an extension or submit an



extenuating circumstances form – see Section 5.4 below.



Assessed work which is submitted late but within five working days of the agreed submission date will be accepted and the maximum mark available for that piece of assessment will be 40%. This does not apply to the submission of assessed work relating to Tutor Reassessment, referral or deferral requirements but does apply to previously agreed extended or renegotiated deadlines. Work submitted later than this without an approved extension will receive a mark of 0%.



Please note that loss of data or printing error are not deemed to be acceptable reasons for the late submission of work.



It is important that the following regulations are adhered to regarding assessment word limits as penalties do apply if limits are exceeded. In essence, you will only be awarded a grade on the content of your assessment up to the word limit and anything past that will be discounted.



1. The word limit is as set out in the assessment task and is not subject to variation.

2. The limit excludes the bibliography or reference list, footnotes, appendices and details of the assessment task.

3. The mark to be awarded will therefore be that which applies at this word limit.



5.4 Process for requesting an extension or submitting a claim for Extenuating Circumstances (ECs)

Students are expected to complete all the tasks within given timelines. No extension will be granted unless in extenuating circumstances. There are procedures in place for you to request a short extension to a deadline but this request has to be made no later than two working days after the published submission date.



If you have difficulties such as a short term illness and need to request an extension, you should submit a request via the eCover extension and submission system – supporting information to confirm your circumstances may be required. A guide to the eCover system is available on the intranet.



Late requests for extensions are not accepted and you run the risk of scoring a maximum of 40% for that piece of work if submitted late but within 5 working days of the original deadline, or 0% if submitted later than this without an approved extension.



The University understands that there may be times when your ability to complete a piece of assessed work or to concentrate on your studies may be hindered by factors beyond your control – such as illness or significant personal difficulties. The regulations include a process to allow students who are affected in this way to bring these extenuating circumstances (ECs) to the attention of the relevant people in the School (such as the Course Assessment Board) so that proper account can be taken. Please be aware that a claim for ECs will usually only be accepted where you’ve been able to demonstrate that the circumstances described have had a direct impact on you and were substantial and unexpected - in all other cases students would be expected to negotiate an extension. The regulations for ECs can be found in Section 5 at http://www.hud.ac.uk/registry/regulationsandpolicies/studentregs



When completing an EC form please be careful to include the correct modules and assessments and to be sure that you attach appropriate and acceptable evidence to your claim.



Once completed your claim has to be submitted to the Course Administration Office (BS1/03) within 5 working days of the date by which your assessment should have been completed.



5.5 Formative assessment



Draft essay, case studies, MCQs.



5.6 Arrangements for the return of work and feedback

You should normally receive feedback on your assessments three teaching (i.e. term time) weeks after the submission date for the assessment. Dates for the return of work and feedback are indicated within Section 5.3 of this handbook. Feedback should help you understand why you received the mark and what you can do to improve your performance in future assessments.



You can obtain feedback on your coursework by accessing it via Turnitin three weeks after the submission date. You will be given a lecture detailing general feedback on the coursework question in the first lecture three weeks after the submission date. You may discuss any queries you have about your coursework feedback in the lecture or by appointment with the tutor who marked it.



5.7 Tutor Reassessment



Tutor Reassessment (TR) is where a student is given a single opportunity to re-submit an eligible piece of work and for it to be remarked prior to the meeting of the Course Assessment Board. Tutor reassessment will only be offered if you submit a piece of work for the original assessment and achieve a mark of between 0 and 39%. The maximum mark available for a tutor reassessment is 40%.



The full regulations for tutor reassessment can be found in Section E at http://www.hud.ac.uk/registry/regulationsandpolicies/studentregs



As indicated above, the following piece(s) of assessment are eligible for tutor reassessment:



Element of assessment Submission method TR

submission date Receipt issued Date work and feedback returned

Individual assignment Written TBA TBA



If you are eligible for tutor reassessment, you will be notified after return of the coursework on your assessment feedback form. TR coursework must be submitted via Turnitin and feedback will be given in the usual way on the coursework and made available three weeks after submission.



5.8 Required Availability for the Examination Period



Your course may involve formal examinations and it is essential that you remain available for the whole of the examination period. The dates for this period can be found in the Academic Administration Timetable which is released in July ahead of the forthcoming academic year. You will find out the specific dates and times of your examinations in early March ahead of the examination period.



It is your responsibility as a student to be available for the whole of the examination period as your examinations could fall at any point during this period.



Note to Part-Time students – Your examination may take place on a day which is different to your normal day of attendance.



6. GENERAL INFORMATION



6.1 Academic misconduct and referencing information

The University regards any action by a student that may result in an unfair academic advantage as a serious offence. It is your responsibility to ensure at all times that the assessments you complete are entirely your own work and that you have used the relevant referencing technique correctly and in full. The full set of regulations which govern Academic Integrity can be found under Section 4, Assessment Regulations 3 and 4 at http://www.hud.ac.uk/registry/regulationsandpolicies/studentregs/



Further information on academic integrity, including an overview of the support available for referencing, can be found within your course handbook; it is important that you familiarise yourself with this information.



6.2 Further reading



It is acceptable to cite any older or most recent editions than those listed.



Kramar, R. and Syed, J. (2012) Human Resource Management in a Global Context: A Critical Approach. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. (Core Text)



Harzing, A-W. and Pinnington, A. (2014) International Human Resource Management. 4th edition. London: Sage.

Crawley, E., Swailes, S. and Walsh, D. (2013) Introduction to International Human Resource Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Özbilgin, M., Groutsis, D. and Harvey, W. (Eds.) (2014) International Human Resource Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brewster, C., Sparrow, P. and Vernon G. (2011) International Human Resource Management. 3rd edition. London: CIPD.

Lucas, R.E., Lupton, B. and Mathieson, H. (Eds.) (2007) Human Resource Management in an International Context. London: CIPD.

Edwards, T. and Rees, C. (2010) International Human Resource Management: Globalization, National Systems and Multinational Companies. 2nd edition. Harlow: Pearson.

Hollinshead, G. (2009) International and Comparative Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Crawshaw, J., Budhwar, P. and Davis, A. (Eds.) (2014) Handbook of Human Resource Management: Strategic and International Perspectives. London: Sage.

Budhwar, P. and Horwitz, F. (Ed.) (2015) Human Resource Management in Emerging Markets. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Ibraiz, R., Briscoe, D.R. and Schuler, R.S. (2015) International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices for Multinational Enterprises. 5th edition. Abingdon: Routledge.



Scullion, H. and Linehan, M. (2005) International Human Resource Management: A Critical Text. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.



Academic Journals

In addition to the above, readings from current journal articles will be recommended on specific topics. In particular, students will be encouraged to survey the journals listed below on a regular basis:



International Journal of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management Journal

Personnel Review

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion

Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources

Human Resource Development International

Human Resource Management Review People Management (practitioner journal)



Students will be encouraged, in line with the University’s policy of encouraging independent learning, to further develop their knowledge and understanding of international HRM by using audio-visual resources and IT, such as podcasts or other credible internet materials, as sources of information. They will also be encouraged to consult HRM practitioner web sites and resources such as CIPD and SHRM.



Useful Web Sites



Core textbook: Human Resource Management in a Global Context: A Critical Approach: http://www.palgrave.com/companion/Kramar-Human-Resource-Management



Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Services: http://www.acas.org.uk Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development: http://www.cipd.co.uk Equality and Human Rights Commission: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com People Management: http://www.cipd.co.uk/pm

Society for Human Resource Management: http://www.shrm.org XpertHR – available through Summon:https://library3.hud.ac.uk/; http://www.xperthr.co.uk



TEDx talks, e.g. Rainer Strack: The workforce crisis of 2030 -- and how to start solving it now:

http://www.ted.com/talks/rainer_strack_the_surprising_workforce_crisis_of_2030_and_how_to_start_solving_it_now?language=en



It is also useful to look at policy reports, e.g. PwC’s 2014 Executive Reward Survey: http://www.pwc.co.uk/en_UK/uk/assets/pdf/ers14-ftse-100-market-overview.pdf



In Google Alert, you can set up an alert for key words in your assignment: https://www.google.co.uk/alerts





6.3 Arrangements for borrowing equipment/accessing labs/studios

If you wish to borrow equipment or gain access to specialist facilities please discuss your requirements with your Course leader or Year Tutor.



6.4 Aspects of Health and Safety specific to the module

An overview of the Health and Safety arrangements in place for both the University and the Business School can be found within your course handbook.



6.5 Academic Skills/Technical Support

The Learning Development Group offers study skills support to all students within the Business School, covering topics such as reading, research, academic writing (including referencing) and reflective practice. Their contact details can be found within Unilearn under the ‘Learning Development Group’ tab.













It is acceptable to cite any older or most recent editions than those listed.



Kramar, R. and Syed, J. (2012) Human Resource Management in a Global Context: A Critical Approach. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. (Core Text)















arzing, A-W. and Pinnington, A. (2014) International Human Resource Management. 4th edition. London: Sage.

Crawley, E., Swailes, S. and Walsh, D. (2013) Introduction to International Human Resource Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Özbilgin, M., Groutsis, D. and Harvey, W. (Eds.) (2014) International Human Resource Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brewster, C., Sparrow, P. and Vernon G. (2011) International Human Resource Management. 3rd edition. London: CIPD.

Lucas, R.E., Lupton, B. and Mathieson, H. (Eds.) (2007) Human Resource Management in an International Context. London: CIPD.

Edwards, T. and Rees, C. (2010) International Human Resource Management: Globalization, National Systems and Multinational Companies. 2nd edition. Harlow: Pearson.

Hollinshead, G. (2009) International and Comparative Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Crawshaw, J., Budhwar, P. and Davis, A. (Eds.) (2014) Handbook of Human Resource Management: Strategic and International Perspectives. London: Sage.

Budhwar, P. and Horwitz, F. (Ed.) (2015) Human Resource Management in Emerging Markets. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Ibraiz, R., Briscoe, D.R. and Schuler, R.S. (2015) International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices for Multinational Enterprises. 5th edition. Abingdon: Routledge.















Scullion, H. and Linehan, M. (2005) International Human Resource Management: A Critical Text. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.



Academic Journals

In addition to the above, readings from current journal articles will be recommended on specific topics. In particular, students will be encouraged to survey the journals listed below on a regular basis:



International Journal of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management Journal

Personnel Review

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion

Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources

Human Resource Development International

Human Resource Management Review People Management (practitioner journal)



Students will be encouraged, in line with the University’s policy of encouraging independent learning, to further develop their knowledge and understanding of international HRM by using audio-visual resources and IT, such as podcasts or other credible internet materials, as sources of information. They will also be encouraged to consult HRM practitioner web sites and resources such as CIPD and SHRM.











Useful Web Sites



Core textbook: Human Resource Management in a Global Context: A Critical Approach: http://www.palgrave.com/companion/Kramar-Human-Resource-Management



Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Services: http://www.acas.org.uk Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development: http://www.cipd.co.uk Equality and Human Rights Commission: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com People Management: http://www.cipd.co.uk/pm

Society for Human Resource Management: http://www.shrm.org XpertHR – available through Summon:https://library3.hud.ac.uk/; http://www.xperthr.co.uk



TEDx talks, e.g. Rainer Strack: The workforce crisis of 2030 -- and how to start solving it now:

http://www.ted.com/talks/rainer_strack_the_surprising_workforce_crisis_of_2030_and_how_to_start_solving_it_now?language=en



It is also useful to look at policy reports, e.g. PwC’s 2014 Executive Reward Survey: http://www.pwc.co.uk/en_UK/uk/assets/pdf/ers14-ftse-100-market-overview.pdf



















In Google Alert, you can set up an alert for key words in your assignment: https://www.google.co.uk/alerts





6.3 Arrangements for borrowing equipment/accessing labs/studios

If you wish to borrow equipment or gain access to specialist facilities please discuss your requirements with your Course leader or Year Tutor.



6.4 Aspects of Health and Safety specific to the module

An overview of the Health and Safety arrangements in place for both the University and the Business School can be found within your course handbook.



6.5 Academic Skills/Technical Support

The Learning Development Group offers study skills support to all students within the Business School, covering topics such as reading, research, academic writing (including referencing) and reflective practice. Their contact details can be found within Unilearn under the ‘Learning Development Group’ tab.



those some books and journal 

The globalisation/internationalisation of business: implications for HR strategy. Domestic vs. international HRM



Contextualising HRM. Universal application vs a contingency approach. Convergence vs. divergence.



Cross cultural issues: attitudes to work and managerial styles/leadership; theories and research relating to cross cultural and comparative HRM.



HRM in MNCs.



International employee resourcing: ‘think global act local’: alternative approaches to recruitment, selection and deployment issues; providing support to employees working abroad; repatriation; legal aspects.



International employee development: government initiatives and trends; training the international employee; international assignments as part of management development.



International employee reward: strategies; pay and conditions; trends and sources of information.

International employee relations: variations in the structures of employee relations: unionisation; participation and involvement; consultation and communication.


CONTENT:

HRM in a transnational enterprise and ethnocentric orientation Name Course Instructor Date Introduction The ethnocentric orientation is a home-country oriented approach where the parent organization plays a more critical role in managing the company affairs. The key management positions are held by nationals from the parent company. This is especially when a product or service being provided is mostly associated with parent company, where the parent has a capability at result in competitive advantage. A transnational enterprise follows a more geocentric internalization strategy where the decision making, marketing, as well as research and development are undertaken by the individual foreign markets. The transnational organizations are well placed to respond to the demands and needs of individual foreign markets. Despite relying on local market knowledge, the transnational organizations need integrating activities with the home office to be more effective. For companies, operating internationally, human resource development allows them to depend on a pool of skilled workers regardless of the area of operation. Training The quality of training differs depending on the strategies utilized by the transnational enterprises compared to the ethnocentric oriented organizations where the parent company focuses on similar strategies that mirror the needs and demands of the parent company. For instance, the stand alone strategies can be utilized by the translational organizati...


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