Jul 16, 2017 Research papers

What is its history? What is the theory of probability? How is it calculated? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using this technique?

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Hypothesis Testing

INSTRUCTIONS:

States which gives the number of adults in the United States (reported in thousands) classified by their age group, and whether or not respondents have ever been tested for HIV. Here are the data:







Age Group Tested Never Tested

18–44 years 50,080 56,405

45–64 years 23,768 48,537

65–74 years 2,694 15,162

75 years and older 1,247 14,663

Total 77,789 134,767









Case Assignment

1.Discuss probability. What is its history? What is the theory of probability? How is it calculated? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using this technique?

2.Identify and discuss the two major categories of probability interpretations, whose adherents possess conflicting views about the fundamental nature of probability.

3.Based on this survey, what is the probability that a randomly selected American adult has never been tested? Show your work. Hint: using the data in the two total rows, this would be calculated as p (NT) /( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability.

4.What proportion of 18- to 44-year-old Americans have never been tested for HIV? Hint: using the values in the 18–44 cells, this would be calculated as p (NT) / ( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability. Show your work.



Required Reading 



Michelson, S. & Schofield, T. (2002). Chapter 2: Inference (pages 45-53). In: The Biostatistics Cookbook: The Most User-Friendly Guide for the Bio/Medical Scientist. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Available in Ebrary, accessed via Trident’s online library.



Additional Reading (Optional)



Davis, R. and Mukamal, K. (2006). Statistical Primer for Cardiovascular Research: Hypothesis testing. Retrieved from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/114/10/1078.full



McDonald, JH (2009). Basic concepts of hypothesis testing. Retrieved from http://udel.edu/~mcdonald/stathyptesting.html



Johnson, L. (2008). Principles of Hypothesis Testing for Public Health. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved from www.nihtraining.com/cc/ippcr/current/downloads/HypoTest.pdf

CONTENT:

Hypothesis Testing Name Course Instructor Date 1] Discuss probability. What is its history? What is the theory of probability? How is it calculated? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using this technique? Probability is concerned with understanding how chance affects certain outcomes of a random phenomenon (Michelson & Schofield, 2002). Probability and statistics are closely related, and probability predicts the likelihood that an event is likely to occur, but probability is a subset on the subject matter of statistics. Typically the probability that an event will occur is dependent on the likelihood that the event would occur in a number of ways as well as the final outcomes. Even though, probability has an element of uncertainty, when there are no known chances of occurrences, each event has equal chance among the outcomes. At the same time, probability distributions provide a clear picture of the population distribution. The normal distribution is then used in hypothesis testing as it may

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