Jul 23, 2017 Research papers

What chemicals do Nitrosococcus oceani and Nitrosopumilus maritimus consume from their ocean environment?

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Ocean Ecosystem (BIO 102 wk 5 SLP)


To complete your SLP, you will complete your analysis of the peer-reviewed article by Urakawa et al (2012) that described the influence of crude oil on two groups of bacteria, Eubacteria, Nitrosococcus oceani, and Archaea, Nitrosopumilus maritimus; that utilize different methods of metabolism.  Now that you understand the taxonomic and metabolic differences between these two species, think about how these organisms interact with their environment and how these interactions could potentially affect other populations of organisms.  As you prepare to complete this final component of the SLP make sure you think about the nutrients and chemicals that these organisms consume for energy, removing it from their environment, and produce as a byproduct, adding it their environment.  By both removing and contributing chemicals and nutrients to their environment, these organisms can alter the availability of nutrients for other organisms.

As we discussed on the Home page of Module 5, the success of individuals, and ultimately of populations of organisms as a whole, is largely determined by their ability to acquire resources from their environment to the extent that they can find a mate, reproduce, and pass their “successful genes” onto their offspring.   The term natural selection, describes the role of environmental pressures on determining the success of species.  Over long periods of time, the theory of natural selection helps us to understand how species have evolved.  Proceed through these brief tutorials developed by the University of California, Berkeley, to understand more about natural selection, and its relevance to your SLP:

Natural Selection http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_25

Follow the arrows and read the sections on Natural Selection at Work and What About Fitness?

Now complete your research on Nitrosococcus oceani and Nitrosopumilus maritimus using the resources below:

First, visit this website developed by Texas A&M University’s Department of Oceanography:


to learn more about the marine foodweb, and the relationships between microogranims and larger organisms that inhabit the oceans.

Now read the following article from the University of Washingtonhttp://www.washington.edu/news/2014/02/24/vitamin-water-measuring-essential-nutrients-in-the-ocean/

and this article from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign,


to consider additional byproducts and nutrients that these microbes can contribute to the environment, thereby influencing the metabolism
of other species.

After completing your readings, address the following in a 2-3 page paper:

  1. What chemicals do Nitrosococcus oceani and Nitrosopumilus maritimus consume from their ocean environment?  How does the abundance of these chemicals influence their success and abundance?  What is the relationship between nutrient availability and natural selection, in general?
  2. What chemical byproducts do each contribute? (Be sure to cite the references above!) How does this relate to the “Greenhouse Effect?”
  3. If one group is selected for due to their ability to withstand an abundance of crude oil, what chemical offsets to the environment are possible?  How will this affect other organisms in this community?  Provide specific examples with references to support your ideas.

SLP Assignment Expectations

The Session Long Project consists of an integrative project emphasizing the personalized application of each module`s concepts. For Modules 1–5, students are required to engage in an original integrative project reflecting their comprehensive knowledge of and ability to apply the course materials. Each component of the SLP will be graded on a modular basis.

Your essay is considered a scholarly work.  You will be provided with many scholarly references to begin each assignment.  For any additional research you are required to do to complete your assignment, please use scholarly references such as a peer reviewed journal article or a government sponsored or university sponsored website.  As you read through your sources, take notes from your sources and then write your paper in your own words, describing what you have learned from your research.  Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks.  Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example (Murray, 2014).   Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit.

When you write your essay, please organize your paper to include an introduction (overview of the assignment), body with subtitles (reflecting the requirements of the assignment), and a summary (develop connections between the required topics). 

Ocean EcosystemName:Institution:Course Title:Instructor:Date:Ocean EcosystemIntroductionOrganisms in the world have evolved over time to their present states to fit to the conditions of the environment. These changes in the environment have progressively affected the physical and biological characteristics of the organizations (Evolution 101, n.d). Natural selection is the process that is associated with the modification of organisms’ characteristics to meet then conditions posed by the environment. Different organisms depend on others for survival and this leads to a food web. Bacteria, which are largely found in the sea, are associated with the release of significant reasonable greenhouse gases. This paper looks at how oil spills affects the survival of the bacteria and how they respond to these changes.Chemicals consumed by Nitrosococcusoceani and Nitrosopumilusmaritimus from the oceanNitrosococcusoceani and Nitrosopumilusmaritimus bacteria are able to consume hydrocarbons from oil spills. The hydrocarbons ac...

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