Jul 15, 2017

What are some mechanisms of environmental symbiosis? Is your example obligate or facultative? Which of the 6 developmental questions does this topic involve?

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Environmental Symbiosis

INSTRUCTIONS:

What are some mechanisms of environmental symbiosis? Is your example obligate or facultative? Which of the 6 developmental questions does this topic involve?



How is the evidence evaluated (refer back to Module 1 and Module 2 quiz)



Word limit for the quiz is as long as it takes to answer the questions.



The only resources needed is the textbook and the pages assigned during the course are the only pages necessary to complete the quiz.



book: Developmental Biology, 10th Edition, Scott F. Gilbert, Sinauer Associates Inc. Publisher. ISBN 13: 978-0-87893-978-7. ISBN 10: 0-87893-978-4



According to the instruction, How is the evidence evaluated (refer back to Module 1 and Module 2 quiz). i send it to you just in case you need it.



Moodle 1 quiz



The textbook stated that we can easily remember the rules that developmental biologists use to evaluate evidence presented in support of hypotheses using the expression “ find-it-lose it-move it”



Explain what this phrase means giving specific examples.





Find it –lose it- move it



Find it-move it-lose it is a development concept used by scientists when undertaking research. The concept is provides useful information through which conclusions are made. It is applied in development of cells and genes pertaining to growth of organisms. As denoted by (Stein et al, 1990), development biology concepts involving pattern of genes, effects of mutating genes and reversing of genes is best identified using the process since it gives understanding of the importance of a certain situation for development of cells in the tissues and eventually the whole body. Then the find it- move it - lose it concept gives analyst the right answer to the problem that they have (Berk & Zipursky, 2000).



Find it is the find-it-lose it-move it first phrase in the concept. Find it in the lay man language concept when a certain component in a system has been found. The researchers try to identify the correlation of the existing component to development of the system. In biology, a particular gene may be identified to be in the eye tissue (Berk & Zipursky, 2000). Researchers may need to question if the existence of that particular gene contributes to the development of tissues in the eye. Thus find it phrase is based on the fact that the particular gene in the question is found in a particular tissue cell. Presence of a particular gene in a cell eye may raise question on development of the eye contribution and the whether it has nay responsibility towards certain specific traits of an eye. A development hypothesis can then be created concerning the particular gene (Stein et al, 1990).



Lose it phrase is the second step in the concept of find it- lose it- move it. The lose it phrase is used by scientists to describe the action taken in a development of tissues and cells study. In this process, the genes or may be genes sequence in a cell located in a tissue for instance an eye. So the genes found in the cell of an eye which questioned if they are responsible for a particular trait may be removed from the eye and then analysis can be done on the whether the spotted genes or sequence is truly responsible for the development of the tissues as it is. If the tissue functions well, then the



Move it phrase is the final step in development of hypothesis among the researchers with interest in development of organisms. “Move it” in the lay man language refers to a situation whereby after finding a component on a system you then decide to move the component to another location to find if the component will function as it was functioning in the first scenario. A gene found in a certain tissue is removed from the tissue and then transferred to another tissue. The expected development is then monitored to check on the status if the cells of the tissue will function normally. The gene and DNA sequence of the cells may also be assumed to be the agents of the development and growth of the cells in the new tissue is useful in conclusion (Stein et al, 1990. A positive growth of the new tissues and when the expected development is achieved, then a conclusion is derived that the genes that were relocated or substituted to the new cells is the one responsible for development of the previous cells as they were. The conclusion is also arrived that the extracted genes in the cell are the only one responsible for development of tissues in the first tissues.



Find it –lose it-move it is a sequence which when followed in the right way may lead to the right direction concerning development of cells and the agents causing the development. Used mainly by researchers concerned with biological development processes.







References



Berk, A., & Zipursky, S. L. (2000). Molecular cell biology (Vol. 4). New York: WH Freeman.

Stein, G. S., Lian, J. B., & Owen, T. A. (1990). Relationship of cell growth to the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression during osteoblast differentiation. The FASEB journal, 4(13), 3111-3123.



Module 2



If viewing this through the Assignment tool, click the title above to go to the Submissions area.





By the completion of this activity you will be able to:



Analyze recent developments and current trends in human longevity

How can developmental biologists contribute to the quest to delay aging in humans? Read about and provide a review of the work of one biologist, or group of biologists. Review their work, detailing their evidence, and cite any possible applications. Are you sold on this? See any valid applications for the work yet?



300-500 words with the highest grade point possible at 300 words.



Use APA format to cite sources.



The textbook must be incorporated into the essay, in addition to outside sources.



Wikipedia and similar sites are not acceptable.



You may use peer-reviewed research articles. One good source is the Public Library of Science.



​Ageing is defined as the time-related weakening of the physiological functions essential for fertility and survival. Conn (2011) opines that the maximum lifespan is the maximum number of years that human species is known to live and survive. A baby born in Britain during 1780s could be expected to live up to 35 years old while in the same period in Massachusetts, life expectancy was averaged at 28 years. During that time, that was the normal range of life expectancy for most human races. In the present period, the life expectancy in certain regions of the world (for example, Afghanistan, Togo, Cambodia and other third world countries) is less than 40 years. A child born in 1985 in United States can expect to live 78 years. In 2010, the maximum recorded life expectancy for humans was 116 years for males and 122.5 years for females. This clearly illustrates that with better health standards; people can live long and delay aging.

​Human beings are the only living species aware of their fact of aging as well as its inevitability. While some people find comfort through promises of religious and metaphysical afterlife, others are not satisfied with such promises and have gone further to quest delay aging scientifically (Conn, 2011). At the present era, developmental biologists continue to contribute to the quest to delay aging in humans. A good example of a developmental biologist is Dr. Zir Barzilai who opened his conversation by saying how people can die while young at a very old age. Dr. Barzilai conducted a research whose techniques in the biology of aging show the roles of genetic determinants of lifespan and the role of nutrients as vital in prolonging life and delay aging. 

​Dr. Barzilai claimed that there are successful efforts in the goal of ensuring that aging is delayed. He demonstrated that healthy lifespan has been prolonged in several animal models and explained relevant drugs have been utilized in humans. Developmental biologists are looking at not only why people age at different rates, but also try to understand the factors, which can prolong longevity (Chanson, Epelbaum, Lamberts and Christen, 2013). Dr. Barzilai explained that people who live longer life have protective genes which assist in their longevity. Dr. Barzilai identified age as a major risk factor for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. He explained that although age is a major risk factor that causes diseases, medical system does not consider age as a risk or a threat because these diseases can be treated one at a time and consequently delay ageing. Dr. Barzilai justified that certain genes can be introduced in the human body to assist in delaying aging.

​Besides that, developmental biologist Ana Maria Cuervo emphasized the significance of keeping body cells clean as a way to delay aging. Changes in lifestyles like minimizing the amount of sugar and fat in the diet and doing exercises are known to enhance cell cleaning. She identified autophagy as a cellular cleaning system that is capable of taking care of continuous elimination of clumps of abnormal proteins in the cells of the human brain and keeping cells healthy. Dr. Cuervo explained that increased activity of autophagy can help to delay aging. She identified Huntington’s, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s are age-related diseases of the brain, which can be eliminated by autophagy (Conn, 2011). She said that getting rid of wastes which accumulate in human cells assists to keep humans healthy. She demonstrated that high-fat diets put excessive burden and eventually block the cell’s cleaning system. She identified calorie restriction as a way of encouraging longevity and lifespan. Furthermore, developmental biologist Caroline Blaum considered aging as the main risk factor causing major diseases, and emphasizes on the need to redesign the approach of giving health care to the older adults and the elderly.

​Another developmental biologist Jay Olshansky explained that delayed aging is something that is evident. Nowadays, people are living longer in their 90s and 100s. Such people are aging slower than the rest of other people since they are genetically driven to live long that way. Biologist Olshansky justified that people who are aging much slowly are genetically programmed to be that way (Chanson, Epelbaum, Lamberts and Christen, 2013). He explained that currently developmental biologists are working hard to take such information and modify it into therapeutic intervention in order to delay aging on other people who are not programmed to live long life.

​According to Biologist Olshansky, the only way to promote healthy life extension is to delay the aging process since aging triggers all disorders and diseases. He explains that it is much cost-effective to extend healthy life by delaying the aging process than struggling to attack particular diseases (Chanson, Epelbaum, Lamberts and Christen, 2013). Science has disclosed this idea, and it makes sense to delay aging and makes it a priority in the future public health.



References

Conn, M. (2011). Handbook of models for human aging. Boston: Elsevier Academic Press.

Chanson, P., Epelbaum, J., Lamberts, S & Christen, Y. (2013). Endocrine aspects of successful ​aging: genes, hormones and lifestyles. New York: Springer.

CONTENT:

Environmental Symbiosis Name: Subject: Date: Introduction Traditionally, environmental symbiosis has been defined as the mutual beneficial relationship that involves close physical contact between two organisms that are not particularly of the same species. A number of biologists still adhere to this definition, while others consider any interspecies relationship that involves frequent close contact to be a symbiosis relationship as well, regardless of which organism benefits. This includes instances where one organism benefits and the other is not affected at all; this is referred to as commensalism or where one organism benefits and the other is harmed which is parasitism. Symbiosis occurs in various ways. In some cases, some of the organisms require the symbiotic relationship to survive. This is referred to as obligate symbiosis. There is also facultative symbiosis whereby the sym

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