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BUSINESS OF SHIPPING
Instructions to candidates:
allowed: Three hours (plus an extra ten minutes’ reading time at the start – do
not write anything during this time)
Answer any FIVE questions
questions carry equal marks. Marks for each question are shown in [ ]
a diagram, identify the different compartments of a typical 20,000 ton
passenger ship. 
Outline the advantages and disadvantages of large ships. Use a diagram where
appropriate to illustrate your answer. 
practical responsibility for safe navigation rests on masters and navigating
officers’ (International Chamber of shipping resolution). In addition the
Chamber recognises there are important management functions.
and explain the FIVE functions. 
are the TWO recommendations made by the IMO in 1978 with regard to this issue?
classification is normally divided into three groups. List the THREE groups
with an explanation for EACH. 
The carrying capacity of ships comprises four main factors. List and describe
the FOUR factors. 
b) Identify the THREE major developments
that produced what is referred to as ‘modern shipping’. 
In shipping finance what is meant by equity, debt, and bank financing? 
b) Explain the terms ‘default risk’ and ‘default ratings’. Use a
diagram to illustrate your answer. 
preparing a voyage estimate, list the FOUR steps involved, with an explanation
of EACH step. 
What are the TWO main functions of the marketing department of a shipping
b) List and explain the roles of forwarding agents, ship’s agents and
loading brokers.