2019-01-21T10:25:48+00:00 Assignments

Use of Non-Human Primates in Pharmaceutical Drug Research

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Use of Non-Human Primates in Pharmaceutical Drug Research

Instructions:

We have spent some time in this module exploring the ethical treatment of research subjects. This becomes a complex issue when dealing with human participants. This is also a complex issue when we discuss research that involves animals who cannot give consent. The student learning outcome for this module which is one of your program learning outcomes states that students will be able to - Summarize the complex ethical dilemmas faced by scientists as they pursue research, examine how the research may impact individuals, communities, and society across the globe and provide solutions to these problems/issues. This essay assignment will give you an opportunity to demonstrate your mastery of this outcome. Please keep it in mind as you construct your essay and be sure to address all the portions of the outcome in your work. The work you do in this assignment will assist you in mastering the course/module outcome 3.
For this assignment, you will write a 1500 – 2000 word (6-7 pages) essay that fully addresses the following. You should bring in at least 5 additional sources beyond the assigned readings that may apply. Use the Excelsior Library Research Guides and One Search tools to find appropriate academic sources.
This assignment is due during Module 1.
Steps in writing your essay:
1. Select one area of scientific research (pharmaceuticals, medical devices, therapies, surgical procedures, etc), which uses either human subjects or animal subjects. Identify this choice in the title of your essay.
Example: Since my choice is research on drugs being tested on plants; the title of my essay will be: Regulating drug therapy research using plants: can it or should it be done?
Create a research question fully articulating what aspect you will explore. Do not just say “The ethics of research on humans” this is WAY too broad.
Example: Are the current regulations governing plant pharmaceutical experiments enough to assure full compliance around the globe? OR: Are the after care regulations for plants that participate in drug research sufficient and consistent around the world?
3. Your topic must focus on the ethical dilemma involved. Nothing is just good or bad. There are multiple aspects to be considered. Give equal time and attention to BOTH sides.
Example: The benefits from plant research are many, including medical discoveries that save countless lives, food production initiatives and products such as Biofuels. The research on plants has a negative consequence in the pain and suffering inflicted on these organisms. How do we balance these two aspects? How much and when should the individual’s suffering be overlooked for the common good? How much suffering is too much?
4. Identify and explain the complex ethical dilemmas faced by the scientists you have selected as they pursue this type of research.
5. Describe how the research impacts individuals, communities, and society across the globe.
6. Examine the possible solutions to these problems/issues that have been proposed and how or if they are working.
7. Construct a conclusion based on the facts and ideas you have uncovered in researching this topic and apply your own ideas to the solving this problem.

Content:

Use of non-human primates in pharmaceutical drug research Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: Use of non-human primates in pharmaceutical drug research Introduction Before any drugs can be passed as safe for use by human beings, they are normally subjected to vigorous tests and some of the tests may involve the use of the closest species to humans which are non-human primates. To achieve this, pharmaceutical companies have laboratories where they maintain such primates and administer various test drugs to the animals as a way of testing their viability and safety before they can be used by human beings (Bailey, 2005). It is estimated that more than 100,000 primates are used every year in pharmaceutical experiments in the US alone. Since non-human primates share many psychological and biological attributes with humans, most scientists prefer to use them in pharmaceutical experiments. According to Bailey (2005), animals are in most cases used to test the effects of a particular drug on the human body as well as testing the drug’s nature and chemistry. Moreover, animal testing can be used to test the speed of excretion of a drug from the body, the drug toxicity, the chemical breakdown of the drug in the body as well as the rate of absorption of a particular drug in the blood. Animals can also be used to test medical devices, especially when it comes to bio-compatibility. The use of animals in pharmaceutical experiments has always been a contro...


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