Trend line y = a + bd where y = the variable for which trend is required, d = the deviation in time from the midpoint of the time series, a = y , and b = Σ yd /Σ yd 2 Subdivision of the trend line 1 2 d n b n y a 1 = + Sub - period value Where n = the n

Trend line y = a + bd where y = the variable for which trend is required, d = the deviation in time from the midpoint of the time series, a = y , and b = Σ yd /Σ yd 2 Subdivision of the trend line 1 2 d n b n y a 1 = + Sub - period value Where n = the n

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Trend line

bd

where = the variable for which trend is required, = the deviation in time from the midpoint of the time series, a = y , and yd yd 2

Subdivision of the trend line

Sub - period value y=

a

+

b

d1

n

n2

 

 

 

Where = the number of sub-periods per cycle, and d= the deviation from the midpoint of the series measured in sub-periods.

Index Numbers

Laspeyre price index

Index

=

 

(pq)

x

100

 

(pq)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paasche price index

 

 

 

Index

=

 

(pq)

 

x

100

 

 

(pq)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Useful Formulae

 

 

 

Weighted average

 

 

 

Weighted average =

xw

 

 

 

 

 

Geometric mean

w

 

 

 

 

 

 

n

 

 

 

 

 

GM =

 

(xΧ xΧ xΧ ....... x)

Alternative

 

 

logx

 

 

 

 

 

 

Log GM

=

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STATISTICAL FORMULAE

ESSENTIAL FORMULAE

Frequency Distributions

Arithmetic Mean (

 

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 


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