Here we examine forgetting, the other side of learning and memory. We don’t remember everything we want to, which can be annoying or even more troublesome, but we also don’t remember many things we don’t need to. This is also important. Forgetting is a critical component in our processing of information. Can you imagine what it would be like to never forget anything?
Use the Excelsior College Virtual Library to find an article on forgetting in a psychological journal. Make sure you include the entire citation for the article you chose.
Discuss the article you found on forgetting. Summarize the major points of the article. Explain how forgetting was measured. Discuss the variables that influenced forgetting.
Memory research typically focuses on the types of information that gets encoded, stored, and retrieved. Chance (2014) contends that there is no consensus on the number of types of memory or the terminology used when talking about memory. In this module, you will learn about several types of learning including short-term memory, long-term memory, declarative memory, and nondeclarative memory.
Short-term memory and long-term memory involve the timing between learning information and recalling that information. Short-term memory is also known as working memory. The time between the learning experience and the recall of the information being learned is relatively short. Chance (2014) asserts that the time limit for short-term memory is a matter of seconds to a minute. An example of short-term memory would be when you try to remember a telephone number long enough so you can dial the telephone. You are using your short-term memory in this case. Long-term memory involves a long span of time between the learning experience and the recall of information. The time span of long-term memory can be years or even decades. An example of long-term memory is an adult recalling the trip he or she took as a 5-year-old child to Walt Disney World. The adult remembers the learning experience and may even be able to give you a detailed account of the trip.
Declarative memory and nondeclarative memory involve the types of information that is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Declarative memory deals with information that can be expressed in words. Information learned in school tends to utilize declarative memory. There are several types of declarative memory: episodic memory, autobiographical memory, semantic memory, etc. Nondeclarative memory involves information that cannot be expressed. A person typically does not know that they know a given fact or tidbit of information when using nondeclarative memory. The most commonly known type of nondeclarative memory is procedural memory. You will learn more about these types of memory and about how forgetting affects learning and memory as you read through Chapter 12 of the Chance (2014) text.
Learning plays a vital role in behavior; both animal and human behavior. In order to truly understand behavior, you must understand learning. Learning can only be understood if you know the limits of learning. There are many limits to learning. Chapter 13 in the Chance (2014) text discusses several limits of learning. Whether it is physical characteristics, heredity, neurological, or any other limitation, animal and human behavior can be limited by various factors.
The researchers explore the issue of directed forgetting that one undertakes to control their memory to remember pertinent details and forget those that are designated irrelevant. The authors examined the mechanisms used by individuals for direct forgetting in the context of working memory. The first experiment was to investigate the effect of articulatory suppression, attention-demanding and rehearsal-reducing secondary