Comment on these four post as if you were me with a 100 words each, DO NOT COMPARE THE POSTS, and put 3 references for each post, and please seperate the references with the post it was made for.
Types of budgets
Line item budget - In short, a line item budgeting approach is one that utilizes historical data with regards to expenditures to justify expenditures for each resource, line item, in the upcoming fiscal year (Swain & Reed, 2010; Joseph, 2017). The department that I work for, specifically the division, uses this type of budget. Looking over the past years, my supervisor is able to estimate the average hours we work, amount of overtime paid-out, and average equipment costs to accurately provide a budgetary request. Though the resources above are varying, they more often than not hover around the same cost annually.
Lump sum - This budgeting approach differs from line item in that the requesting entity has more discretion in the budgetary spending. Expenditures are proposed as one large sum that the agency requesting gets to spend as they need - unlike line-item where the budget spending is spelled out (Duke, 2016; Swain & Reed, 2010). An example, as provided by Duke University, is a research project (Duke, 2016). Within the proposed lump-sum budget, the research team may spend the money on travel expenses that may differ, and additional equipment as well (Duke, 2016).
Zero-base - ZBB, as it is abbreviated, refers to the budget that defines a goal, what necessary steps will have to happen to make that goal, and requests resources accordingly (Swain & Reed, 2010; Warner, 1993). When it is all said and done, the justification of the spending must mean that the expenditures at the end of the budget equal zero (Accounting Tools, 2016). That caveat differentiates the lump sum and ZBB. In a lump sum, the requester gives a large number so resources can be spent as needed. ZBB must look forward, similar to a line-item, but with a goal and spend every penny of the money granted.
Performance - Similar to ZBB, PBB defines a goal for which the money will be spent, but PBB allows for resources to be repurposed as needed, if needed (NCSL, 2017). The particular areas where the resources may need to be spent more so than others can be at the discretion of the requesting entity. With the defined goal similar to ZBB, there are defined goals as to what work must be done to achieve goal(Swain & Reed, 2010). Also, unlike line-item where the money is requested on historical data, PBB requested resources and gives meaning to how the spending will assist in the performance outcomes.
Program - Finally, Program-based budgeting means that the requesting entity have a program for which they are spending their resources (Swain & Reed, 2010). In the requesting of this budget, there is analysis regarding the potential outputs in particular areas in the budget, thus allowing the program to use the resources on a rational basis for the programs needs (Swain & Reed, 2010; Kokemuller, 2017).
Accounting Tools. (2016). Zero-Based Budgeting. Retrieved from http://www.accountingtools.com/zero-based-budgeting
Duke University. (2017). Lump Sum Budgets. Retrieved from https://ors.duke.edu/orsmanual/lump-sum-budgets
Kokemuller, Neil. (2017). What is Program Based Budgeting? Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/info_10052274_programbased-budgeting.html
Joseph, Chris. (2017). Advantages and Disadvantages of a Line-Item Budget. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-lineitem-budget-25461.html
Conference of State Legislature. (2017). Performance Based Budgeting; Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/fiscal-policy/performance-based-budgeting-fact-sheet.aspx
John., Reed, B.J. (2010) Budgeting for Public Managers; Armonk, New York; M.E. Sharpe.
Alice. (1993, May). Library Budget Primer, Wilson Library Bulletin, May, 1993. Retrieved from http://lib.law.washington.edu/reserves/lis593warner.pdf
Types of Budget
As the post indicates the line budget utilizes a historical data approach for every one of the fiscal years (Swain & Reed, 2010; Joseph, 2017). The expenditures on each of the resources have to be justified and in most cases, will be similar to past years. Lump sum budget on the other hand, is based on proposed large sum of money that is then spent at the discretion of the organizing parties. The Zero-Base budget is based on a goal set out at the beginning of the planning phase (Accounting Tools, 2016). All the monies that are offered in this budget have to be spent on the various goals and stages, such that, at the last stage, the amount remain