please respond and expand on the following text regarding the DASH diet!!!
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Who created the DASH diet and why?
The DASH diet was created through research done by the US National Institutes on Health in order to lower blood pressure without the use of medication.1
What population is the DASH diet intended for (may be more than one)?
The DASH diet was intended for use by people with high blood pressure. However, there are other subgroups that could benefit from this diet as it has been found to reduce the risk of: 1) some cancers, 2) stroke, 3) heart disease, 4) heart failure, 5) diabetes, and 6) kidney stones. It has also been found to be an effective diet for weight loss and improved overall health.1
Are there populations that would not benefit from the DASH diet?
The DASH diet, in addition to reduced dietary sodium, has been found to lower blood pressure for all persons. It has been found to have blood pressure lowering effects in a wide variety of population subgroups including: 1) persons with and without hypertension/family history of hypertension, 2) older and younger adults, 3) men and women, 4) African-American and other races, 5) obese and non-obese, 6) people with larger or smaller waist circumference, 7) people with higher or lower physical activity levels, and 8) people with higher or lower annual family income or education.2
Why is sodium such an important micronutrient that requires careful balance in the diet?
Sodium helps to maintain homeostasis of fluid balance and osmotic pressure in the body. The major anion electrolytes of the extracellular fluids are: 1) sodium, 2) potassium, 3) calcium, and 4) magnesium. These cations are electrically balanced by: 1) the anions chloride and bicarbonate 2) negatively charged proteins, and 3) low concentrations of organic acids, phosphate, and sulfate. The body`s total cation mEq of sodium is the largest of the major ions. If sodium ions accumulate in the body water for any reason, it would cause a rise in blood pressure (hypertension).3
What original research studies support the DASH diet and for what outcomes (heart disease, high cholesterol, etc.)?
When typing “DASH Diet” into the PubMed search bar, it automatically suggests searching for Dash Diet with: 1) hypertension, 2) cardiovascular, 3) weight, 4) blood pressure, 5) diabetes, 6) metabolic, 7) kidney, 8) diabetes, and 9) cholesterol. This indicates that studies have been done on the DASH diet and each of these diseases. When considering weight and body composition, the DASH diet has been found to be a good choice for weight management (specifically for weight reduction in overweight and obese participants).4
Are there any other micronutrients that one may need to look out for?
Sodium displaces calcium. Dietary sodium intake increases urinary calcium excretion (which can lead to kidney stones). Hypercalciuria also leads to decreased fecal calcium excretion and increased calcium absorption.3
What are some major food sources of sodium that people on the DASH diet should consume less of?
The major contributor of sodium to the American diet is processed foods.5 A person on the DASH diet should consume processed foods and should focus on reducing their intake of added less salt and sodium.
Are there comparable diets that may also benefit health similarly to DASH?
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (written by the US government) cited the Mediterranean diet as the example of how people should eat, not the DASH diet. However, either diet is considered to benefit health similarly. The DASH diet includes: 1) foods low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol, 2) fruits, 3) vegetables, 4) whole grains, and 5) Protein from low-fat dairy, fish, poultry, and nuts. The DASH diet limits: 1) red meat, 2) sweets, and 3) sugary beverages. The Mediterranean diet recommends: 1) eating a lot of vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, and vegetable oils, 2) eating at least two servings of fish per week, 3) consuming poultry and dairy in moderation, and 4) limiting other meats and sweets. The real issue will be which diet is more palatable and which diet the person feels that they will better be able to stick with to be successful.6
THE DASH DIET By Institution Dash Diet – Nutrition The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a healthy eating plan that proves resourceful in the national aim of inculcating a healthy eating habit among the population. This dietary plan contains fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, fish, whole grains, poultry, and nuts. The diet recommends small amounts of sweets, sugary beverages, red meat, alcohol, and caffeine (Mayo Clinic, 2016). 1 Who created the DASH diet and why? The US National Institutes of Health created the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet in a collaborative research with five research institutions, in order to lower blood pressure through reduction on intake of sodium (Nordqvist, 2014). The DASH study ran between 1993 and 1997. The diet aims at reducing the intake of sodium in the diet with an ultimate aim of reducing blood pressure among hypertension patient. According to several research studies, more than h