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Topic: Biochemistry Research Assignment: Fructose Metabolism
Explain the reactions catalyzed by enzymes in the first two steps of fructose metabolism in the liver, including each of the following:
-the substrates acted on
-the enzyme catalysts
-the products generated
5. Discuss how a deficiency in aldolase B is responsible for HFI by doing the following:
a. Explain how the amount of the substrate of aldolase B is impacted by the deficiency.
b. Explain the role of the substrate in producing one condition of HFI (e.g., hypoglycemia, liver failure).
B. Explore how mitochondrial disease can occur at multiple levels in different mitochondrial processes by doing the following:
1. Explain what would hypothetically happen to the amount of ATP available to a cell if the entire Cori cycle were to occur and remain within a single cell (e.g., a muscle cell).
a. Identify specific numbers of ATP generated and used in the different parts of the cycle, in conjunction with your response from part B1.Explain where in the CAC a hypothetical defect of an enzyme could occur that would decrease the overall ATP production of the mitochondria, including each of the following:
-whether the entire cycle will continue to function
-what will happen to the cycle products
-why ATP production decreases
Note: This is a hypothetical defect, so the explanation should not include descriptions of any known disease.
4. Explain how a proton gradient is formed and used to make ATP during aerobic metabolism.
Note: The inclusion of a discussion of the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, including the role of oxygen, aids in the explanation of this process.
Fructose metabolism Institutional affiliation Student`s name Date The first two reactions in the liver take place when enzyme fructokinase converts fructose to fructose 1-phosphate. The substrate being acted upon is fructose, and the enzyme catalyst is fructokinase. ATP is produced by substrate level phosphorylation when fructose 1phosphate is transferred to ADP. The reaction generates fructose 1-phosphate which is then converted to the trioses dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde in the presence o