2019-02-16T10:55:55+00:00 Essays

Respiratory System: The Asthma, Airway Inflammation

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Respiratory System: The Asthma, Airway Inflammation

Instructions:

PLEASE INCLUDE THE PURPOSE OF THE PAPER AND CONCLUDE WITH A SUMMARY.
Integrate 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 3-4 course resources to support point of view.
Week 6 Assignment
Application: Asthma
Complications of asthma can be sudden. Consider the case of Bradley Wilson, a young boy who had several medical conditions. He appeared in good health when he went to school, returned home, and ate dinner. However, when he later went outside to play, he came back inside wheezing. An ambulance took him to the hospital where he was pronounced dead (Briscoe, 2012). In another case, 10-year-old Dynasty Reese, who had mild asthma, woke up in the middle of the night and ran to her grandfather’s bedroom to tell him she couldn’t breathe. By the time paramedics arrived, she had passed out and was pronounced dead at the hospital (Glissman, 2012). These situations continue to outline the importance of recognizing symptoms of asthma and providing immediate treatment, as well as distinguishing minor symptoms from serious, life-threatening symptoms. Since these symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, as an advanced practice nurse, you must be able to help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate treatment options. For this reason, you need to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. 
To prepare:
• Review “Asthma” in Chapter 26 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Consider how these disorders are similar and different. 
• Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected. 
• Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.
To complete:
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:
• Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Be sure to explain the changes in the arterial blood gas patterns during an exacerbation.
• Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient based on the factor you selected. 
• Construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper. 
This Assignment is due by Day 7 of Week 6.
Note: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
Reference:
Briscoe, K. (2012, May 12). Thetford: mother of Bradley Wilson, who died of asthma attack, told there was nothing she could have done. East Anglian Daily Times. Retrieved from http://www.eadt.co.uk/news/thetford_mother_of_bradley_wilson_who_died_of_asthma_attack_told_there_was_nothing_she_could_have_done_1_1375128
Glissman, B. (2012, May 21). Girl`s death puts focus on asthma`s broader grip. Omaha World-Herald. Retrieved from http://www.omaha.com/article/20120521/LIVEWELL01/305219975 
Week 6 Learning Resources 
This page contains the Learning Resources for this week. Be sure to scroll down the page to see all of this week`s assigned Learning Resources. 
Required Resources
Readings
• Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. 
o Chapter 25, “Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System”
This chapter provides information relating to the structure and function of the pulmonary system to illustrate normal pulmonary function. It focuses on gas transport to build the foundation for examining alterations of pulmonary function. 
o Chapter 26, “Alterations of Pulmonary Function”
This chapter examines clinical manifestations of pulmonary alterations and disorders of the chest wall and pleura. It covers the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of obstructive lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. 

o Chapter 27, “Alterations of Pulmonary Function in Children”



This chapter focuses on alterations of pulmonary function that affect children. These alterations include disorders of the upper and lower airways. 

• McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2010). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical. 

o Chapter 9, “Pulmonary Disease”



This chapter begins with an overview of normal structure and function of the lungs to provide a foundation for examining various lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 

• Iannuzzi, M. C., Rybicki, B. A., & Teirstein, A. S. (2007). Sarcoidosis. The New England Journal of Medicine, 357(21), 2153–2165. 

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. 



This article provides information relating to the epidemiology, genetic features, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of sarcoidosis. It also examines how several body systems are impacted by organ involvement.

Media

• Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012e). Mid-course review. Baltimore, MD: Author.



This media is an interactive mid-course review covering course content. 

Optional Resources

• American Lung Association. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.lung.org/ 

• Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.aafa.org

• Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cff.org/ 



GRADING RUBRIC

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• Walden University M.S. in Nursing

• Formative Evaluation Criteria for Applications and Formal Papers

• 

Categories and Criteria Points

QUALITY OF WORK SUBMITTED - 35 Possible Points

1. The extent to which work meets the assigned criteria and work reflects graduate level critical and analytic thinking (0-30 Points)

Assignment exceeds expectations. All topics are addressed with a minimum of 75% containing exceptional breadth and depth about each of the assignment topics. 25-30 

Assignment meets expectations. All topics are addressed with a minimum of 50% containing good breadth and depth about each of the assignment topics. 20-24 

Assignment meets most of the expectations. One required topic is either not addressed or inadequately addressed. 16-19 

Assignment superficially meets some of the expectations. Two or more required topics are either not addressed or inadequately addressed. 

0-15 

2. Purpose of the paper is clear (0-5 Points)

A clear and comprehensive purpose statement is provided which delineates all required criteria. 5 

Purpose of the assignment is stated, yet is brief and not descriptive. 4 

Purpose of the assignment is vague. 1-3 

No purpose statement was provided. 0 

ASSIMILATION AND SYNTHESIS OF IDEAS - 50 Possible Points

The extent to which the work reflects the student’s ability to- 

1. Understand and interpret the assignment’s key concepts (0-10 Points)

Demonstrates the ability to critically appraise and intellectually explore key concepts. 9-10 

Demonstrates a clear understanding of key concepts. 8 

Shows some degree of understanding of key concepts. 5-7 

Shows a lack of understanding of key concepts, deviates from topics. 0-4 

2. Apply and integrate material in course resources (i.e. video, required readings, and textbook) and credible outside resources (0-20 Points)

Demonstrates and applies exceptional support of major points and integrates 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 3-4 course resources to support point of view. 15-20 

Integrates specific information from 1 credible outside resource and 3 to 4 course resources to support major points and point of view. 10-14 

Minimally includes and integrates specific information from 2-3 resources to support major points and point of view. 3-9 

Includes and integrates specific information from 0 to 1 resource to support major points and point of view. 0-2 

3. Synthesize (combines various components or different ideas into a new whole) material in course resources (i.e. video, required readings, and textbook) by comparing different points of view and highlighting similarities, differences, and connections. (0-20 Points)

Synthesizes and justifies (defends, explains, validates, confirms) information gleaned from sources to support major points presented. Applies meaning to the field of advanced nursing practice. 18-20 

Summarizes information gleaned from sources to support major points, but does not synthesize. 16-17 

Identifies but does not interpret or apply concepts, and/or strategies correctly; ideas unclear and/or underdeveloped. 14-15 

Rarely or does not interpret, apply, and synthesize concepts, and/or strategies. 0-13 



WRITTEN EXPRESSION AND FORMATTING - 15 Possible Points

1. Paragraph and Sentence Structure: Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are clearly structured and carefully focused--neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. (0-5 Points)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards. 5 

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards 80% of the time. 4 

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards 70% of the time. 3 

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards < 70% of the time. 0-2 

2. English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation (0-5 Points)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors. 5 

Contains a few (1-2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 4 

Contains several (3-4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 3 

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding. 0-2 

3. The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list (0-5 Points)

Uses correct APA format with no errors. 5 

Contains a few (1-2) APA format errors. 4 

Contains several (3-4) APA format errors. 3 

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors. 0-2 

Total Points for Assignment: 



• Please copy and paste this rubric table at the end of all Application Assignments in order for your assignment to be graded.

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• Guidance for Application Assignments:



• Application Assignments require a title page, introduction, body of the paper, conclusion, and reference page. The title page needs to follows APA style and includes a title, student name, course number and section, and date. An abstract is not required. APA style headings are to be used appropriately to separate and organize sections of the paper. The use of direct quotes is discouraged and should only be used when the source material uses language that is particularly striking or notable. The introduction should provide an overview of the topic, the purpose of the paper, and topics that will be addressed. The body of the paper needs to address all required topics. The conclusion ought to provide closure for the reader, synthesize the content, and tie everything together to help clarify the main points of the paper. The reference page should include all references cited in the assignment in correct APA format.. Some course assignments may require the use of more than 2 credible outside resources. In these cases, the minimum outside sources specified in the instructions for the assignment will be applied in the grading of these course assignments. Credible sources include scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles, evidence based resources, and professional (.org), educational (.edu), and government websites (.gov). Commercial websites (.com) are not considered credible sources. Please note: When selecting articles for course assignments, you are advised (unless you are referencing seminal information) to focus on work published within the past five years.

Content:

Respiratory System: Asthma Name Course Institution Date Introduction Asthma diagnosis is possible when conducting physical examination and assessing symptoms that affect airflow and airway inflammation. Allergies and asthma are common in some families that others, and children are most affected by allergies that trigger asthmatic attacks. Management of asthma then depends on the severity of the symptoms and triggers of the condition. Medical therapy has made it easier to manage, asthma, but families and health workers need to be vigilant and identify asthma symptoms to avoid the condition getting worse. This is a look at the pathophysiology of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation and treatments strategies for children. Pathophysiology of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation The pathophysiology of chronic asthma occurs when there choric airways inflammation being affected by exacerbations, and factors that increase the risk of exacerbations worsen airways inflammation and cause smooth muscle spasm. Asthma affects people of all ages including almost half of reported cases have been diagnosed amo

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