Jan 22, 2018 sample paper

“Porter or Mintzberg: Whose View of Strategy Is the Most Relevant Today?”

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Ashford 5: – Week 4 (Jun 16 – Jun 22)

Week Four Learning Outcomes

This week students will:

  • Assess the benefits and
    challenges of globalized expansion.
  • Evaluate strategy for the
    multibusiness corporation.

Overview

Assignment

Due Date

Format

Grading
Percent

Operational Planning

Day
3
(1st post)

Discussion

2.5

Deliberate and Emergent Strategies

Day
3
(1st post)

Discussion

2.5

Program Comprehensive Exam

Day
7

Exam

20


Required Readings

Abraham, S. (2012).Strategic management for organizations. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education. 
This text is a Constellation™ course digital materials (CDM) title.

  • Chapter 8: Operational and Budget Planning
  • Chapter 9: ImplementationStrategies

Required Resources

Article

Moore, K. (2011)..forbes.com/sites/karlmoore/2011/03/28/porter-or-mintzberg-whose-view-of-strategy-is-the-most-relevant-today/”>Porter or Mintzberg: Whose view of strategy is
the most relevant today?Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/karlmoore/2011/03/28/porter-or-mintzberg-whose-view-of-strategy-is-the-most-relevant-today/


Recommended Resources

Articles

Clark, D., &Legge, B. (2013)..forbes.com/sites/dorieclark/2013/05/08/the-right-way-to-execute-your-strategic-plan/”>The right way to execute
your strategic plan.Forbes.
Retrieved from
http://www.forbes.com/sites/dorieclark/2013/05/08/the-right-way-to-execute-your-strategic-plan/

Deeb, G. (2013)..forbes.com/sites/georgedeeb/2013/11/06/if-you-build-it-they-may-not-come-budget-ahead-for-startup-marketing/”>If you build it, they may
not come: Budget ahead for startup marketing. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/georgedeeb/2013/11/06/if-you-build-it-they-may-not-come-budget-ahead-for-startup-marketing/

Moore, J. (2012)..forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2012/07/09/7-tips-on-building-your-business-with-better-metrics/”>7 tips on building your
business with better metrics.Forbes. Retrieved from
http://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2012/07/09/7-tips-on-building-your-business-with-better-metrics/


Discussions

To participate in the following discussions, go to this week’s Discussionlink in the left navigation.

  1. Operational Planning [CLO: 5]

    Discuss how an organization benefits from operational planning, and how
    operational planning and budget planning are related. Explain how “system
    thinking” improves operation decision making.

    Guided Response:
    Respond to at least two of your fellow students’ posts in a substantive
    manner and provide recommendations to extend their thinking. Agree or
    disagree with your classmate’s post. Defend your position by using
    information from the textbook and this week’s lecture.

  2. Deliberate and Emergent
    Strategies [CLO: 5]

    Read the following article: “Porter or Mintzberg: Whose View of Strategy
    Is the Most Relevant Today?”. What is the difference between deliberate
    strategies and emergent strategies? How might emergent strategies help
    with a future strategic planning process? In your opinion, what are the
    potential consequences of ignoring emergent strategies?

    Article: Moore, K. (2011). Porter or Mintzberg: Whose view of strategy is
    the most relevant today?

    Guided Response:
    Respond to at least two of your fellow students’ posts in a substantive
    manner and provide recommendations to extend their thinking. Agree or
    disagree with your classmate’s post. Defend your position by using
    information from the article, your textbook and this week’s lecture.


Assignment

To complete the following assignment, go to this week’s Assignment link in the left navigation.

Program
Comprehensive Exam

Complete the exam, which will take approximately two hours and will be graded
based on your score. The full instructions for the exam are posted on the exam
site.

Ashford 5: – Week 4 – Weekly Lecture

Weekly Lecture

Operational Planning

The purpose of operational planning is for a company to create a set of
detailed organizational plans for the coming fiscal year. Such planning will
have two parts: 1) programs, projects, and activities that the company already
has; and 2) new programs, projects, and activities that will be required by any
change in strategy. (Abraham, 2012, p. 234). Operational plans will also
involve plans for each of the company’s organizational units. Activities for
each unit will be coordinated to make sure they support current and future
strategies. To get a better understanding of what operational planning
involves, check out this video:.youtube.com/watch?v=Bhri9yrnhhE”>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bhri9yrnhhE

Budget Planning

Budget planning is one part of operational planning. Budget planning is the
process of matching the financial resources the company has available with what
the company needs to spend to implement its strategies. Financial resources can
include cash on hand, a line of credit or loan, or other investments. (Abraham,
2012, p. 238). To create the budget plan, each of the company’s organizational
units needs to update its request for financial resources and those requests
are evaluated in terms of financial resources and overall strategic goals. The
money each of these units has to spend for the year comes from what is approved
in the budget. Keep in mind, company units do not always get what they
originally ask for! Sometimes strategic goals of the organizational units have
to be modified due to what money is available. One of the outcomes of budget
planning is cost reducing. Sometimes organizational units have to get creative
to meet their intended goals for less money. For further information, see:.infoentrepreneurs.org/en/guides/budgeting-and-business-planning/”>http://www.infoentrepreneurs.org/en/guides/budgeting-and-business-planning/

System Thinking

Operational planning is most effective when all parties involved in the process
under­stands that each unit is part of a larger system and anything that
happens to an individual unit can affect that larger system. This process is
referred to as system thinking. Management who is responsible for making many
of the decisions that will affect these organizational units needs access to
the right information. The following article outlines the basic principles of
systems thinking as applied to management and leadership:.systemicleadershipinstitute.org/systemic-leadership/theories/basic-principles-of-systems-thinking-as-applied-to-management-and-leadership-2/”>http://www.systemicleadershipinstitute.org/systemic-leadership/theories/basic-principles-of-systems-thinking-as-applied-to-management-and-leadership-2/

How could a company operate without knowing what each organizational unit
wants? Most companies require a type of management-information system (MIS). A
MIS must supply the basic information needed by managers for making decisions
regarding the different company units. (Abraham, 2012, p. 228).

Policy Making and Participation

Companies also need policies. Policies are rules that guide behavior in
often-encountered situations. Policies within a company can have several roles
and purposes. (Abraham, 2012, p. 233). For example, policies can determine who
makes a decision, so that decisions are not always made at the level of higher
management. Policies can also spread the decision-making, often letting those
who know the most information about a situation to make a decision regarding
that decision. Policies can also set forth procedures for problems that occur frequently.

Typically, middle managers are most involved with operational planning because
they will be called upon later in the year to implement the plans. Yet, they
should not be the only ones involved. (Abraham, 2012, p. 240). Typically, all
involved parties should approve any operational decisions because if only a
majority agrees, it means a minority disagrees, and as a result the plan will
be harder to implement. Like with any process, operational
planning and budget planning have deadlines. Both plans should be finalized
before the start of the fiscal year. Keep in mind that this planning is
completed on top of day- to-day operations. To reach this deadline, compromises
have to be made—and quickly.

Finally, for a final look at operational planning, please check this website:.com/academy/lesson/what-are-operational-plans-for-a-business-definition-types-examples.html#lesson”>http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/what-are-operational-plans-for-a-business-definition-types-examples.html#lesson

Organizational Plan Implementation

Once both the organizational and budget plans are improved, the organizational
plan must be implemented. This is easier said than done. Remember that the
organizational plan specifies which projects and tasks must be accomplished to
reach overall operational goals and objectives. To do this, the operational
plan will include names of those involved, who will manage those individuals,
which resources are needed, deadlines, and estimated costs. (Abraham, 2012, p.
248). To assist with this process, many of the organizational units of a
business will use Gantt charts, which graphically depict a project schedule and
include start and finish dates of each section of the project. For more
information on Gantt charts, please see:.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_03.htm”>http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_03.htm

Negative Variances

Managers are heavily involved in the implementation process and meet with their
direct reports periodically to evaluate the plan’s progression. One of their
responsibilities is discussing any negative variances. Negative variances are
instances where a project’s process is delayed, could miss a deadline, or a situation
where more money might be spent than was included in the projected budget.
(Abraham, 2012, p. 253). Managers need to meet with their direct reports so
they can understand the reasons for these negative variances and find solutions
for such problems. Plans might need to be revised by direct reports who will
then report back to their managers with the proposed changes.

Emergent Strategies and The Strategy Paradox

When strategies are often executed, they can evolve into something different
than what was originally intended. Henry Mintzberg referred to this as an
“emergent strategy.” (Abraham, 2012, p. 256). The “emergent strategy” can merge
with the intended or “deliberate” strategy to become the final “realized
strategy.” When intended or deliberate strategies fail, they are considered
“unrealized strategies.” For an article that compares Mintzberg’s emergent
strategies to Porter’s (from Week two), please see:.forbes.com/sites/karlmoore/2011/03/28/porter-or-mintzberg-whose-view-of-strategy-is-the-most-relevant-today/”>http://www.forbes.com/sites/karlmoore/2011/03/28/porter-or-mintzberg-whose-view-of-strategy-is-the-most-relevant-today/

Strategic planning is a formal process, which gets a group of people within the
business to coordinate their efforts and work as one. (Abraham, 2012, p. 257).
Typically, strategic planning is the responsibility of the operational unit’s
manager, a specific vice-president, or for smaller businesses, the CEO. To see
more on the strategic planning process, please see:.strategicmanagementinsight.com/topics/strategic-planning-process.html”>http://www.strategicmanagementinsight.com/topics/strategic-planning-process.html The company’sArchilles’ heel refers to a situation when
conditions abruptly change to a current working strategy. Often businesses can
have trouble adapting to this turn of events. This is what is meant by Raynor’s
strategy paradox. For an explanatory video on the strategic paradox from its creator,
please see:.youtube.com/watch?v=4dfB1AAKlaM”>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dfB1AAKlaM

References:

Abraham, S. (2012). Strategic management for organizations. San Diego,
CA: Bridgepoint Education.

Ashford 5: – Week 4 – Discussion 1

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until
Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the
quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the.next.ecollege.com/(NEXT(8e35fb27fa))/Main/CourseMode/Thread/ListThreadsView.ed?courseItemSubID=664582218&courseItemType=CourseContentItem&TopicID=0&”>Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion
will be evaluated.

Operational
Planning [CLO: 5]

Discuss how an organization benefits from operational planning, and how
operational planning and budget planning are related. Explain how “system
thinking” improves operation decision making.

Guided Response:
Respond to at least two of your fellow students’ posts in a substantive manner
and provide recommendations to extend their thinking. Agree or disagree with
your classmate’s post. Defend your position by using information from the
textbook and this week’s lecture.

Ashford 5: – Week 4 – Discussion 2

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until
Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the
quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the.next.ecollege.com/(NEXT(8e35fb27fa))/Main/CourseMode/Thread/ListThreadsView.ed?courseItemSubID=664582219&courseItemType=CourseContentItem&TopicID=0&”>Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion
will be evaluated.

Deliberate
and Emergent Strategies [CLO: 5]

Read the following article: “Porter or Mintzberg: Whose View of Strategy Is the
Most Relevant Today?”. What is the difference between deliberate strategies and
emergent strategies? How might emergent strategies help with a future strategic
planning process? In your opinion, what are the potential consequences of
ignoring emergent strategies?

Article: Moore, K. (2011). Porter or Mintzberg: Whose view of strategy is the
most relevant today?

Guided Response:
Respond to at least two of your fellow students’ posts in a substantive manner
and provide recommendations to extend their thinking. Agree or disagree with
your classmate’s post. Defend your position by using information from the
article, your textbook and this week’s lecture.

Porter or Mintzberg:
Whose View of Strategy Is the Most Relevant Today?

.forbes.com/sites/karlmoore/2011/03/28/porter-or-mintzberg-whose-view-of-strategy-is-the-most-relevant-today/#comment_reply”>Comment
Now

Follow CommentsFollowing CommentsUnfollow CommentsBUS402: Strategic Management & Business Policy week 4.gif” alt=”http://i.forbesimg.com/assets/img/loading_spinners/16px_on_transparent.gif”>

There are two people, and only two, whose
ideas must be taught to every MBA in the world: Michael Porter and Henry
Mintzberg. This was true more than 25 years ago, when I did my MBA at USC.
These are two academics who have had real impact for a long time. Part of their
success, beyond having big relevant ideas, is due to their clear and concise
writing skills (There is certainly a lesson in there for many of us business
school academics).

Both have been very influential in the
study of strategy, an area of considerable interest to many Forbesreaders.
You can contrast their two views as Porter’s taking a more deliberate strategy
approach while Mintzberg’s emphasize emergent strategy. Both are still taught,
in fact, I taught Porter’s 3 Generic Strategies and his 5 Forces Model not two
weeks ago in an undergraduate strategy course at McGill. Which is most useful
today?

The world of deliberate strategy is one
that I remember well from my days as a corporate manager at IBM and then as an
executive teacher at Oxford and LBS. It was a world of strategy planning
weekends at posh hotels in the English countryside, where we sat in rooms
discussing the 5 Forces in our particular industry and what would we change in
the model if we had a fairy’s magic wand. The output was 3 ring binders in
North America and 2 ring binders in Europe. This worked well in its day, back
in the 80s and part of the 90s, wonderful times now looking back on it, when
the past was quite helpful in predicting the future. However, the nature of the
world today no longer lends itself, by in large, to this type of strategy.

Emergent strategy is the view that strategy
emerges over time as intentions collide with and accommodate a changing
reality. Emergent strategy is a set of actions, or behavior, consistent over
time, “a realized pattern [that] was not expressly intended” in the original
planning of strategy. Emergent strategy implies that an organization is
learning what works in practice. Given today’s world, I think emergent strategy
is on the upswing. Here’s why.

But first, in the interest of transparency,
I have worked closely with Henry co-directing and co-teaching on Leadership
Programs at McGill, where we are both on the faculty, for more than a decade.
In fact, many times, I have presented key parts of Porter’s ideas on strategy
for a couple of hours and then Henry presents his ideas as a contrast to
Michael’s. We started doing this tag team effort about 11 years ago and it has
become increasingly easy for Henry to shoot me down in the last few years. And
the executives in the class agree with Henry.

It seems the relatively stable world of (at
least part of) my corporate career has gone the way of the dodo. At times, it
seems the world‘s gone nuts. Let me count the ways: Japan, the PIGS, 9/11,.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/h/hurricane_katrina/index.html?inline=nyt-classifier”>Hurricane
Katrina, SARS, the financial collapse of
2008 and 2009, the.nytimes.com/top/news/business/companies/bp_plc/index.html?inline=nyt-org”>BP.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/o/oil_spills/gulf_of_mexico_2010/index.html?inline=nyt-classifier”>oil
spill, and many more examples. As one writer put
in it this weekend’s Sunday New York Times, “For a moment, all the swans
seemed black.” However, as my friend Dick Evans, ex-CEO of Alcan, pointed out
that my memory was being a bit selective, as it was not only recently that
stability seems to have gone out the window. He reminded me of the time he was
stationed “in Africa experiencing 3 coups – and then back in the USA in the
midst of the junk bond raiders, a wrenching manufacturing recession and the
fall of the Iron Curtain – not to mention personally experiencing the Loma Prieta
earthquake. All of these seemed pretty “black swanish” to me at the time!” Fair
point, nevertheless, it seems that strategy has shifted in the last decade to
where the planning school no longer has the street cred it once had. It is
precisely because we cannot, try as we may, control the variables that factor
into business decisions that Mintzberg’s emergent strategy is so useful.

Porter’s ideas are still relevant, my
colleagues and I still teach them, so I still believe in them and when I talk
to corporate CEOs they still use them as part of their strategy planning
thinking. But they are getting a bit long in the tooth for today’s different
world. Henry’s emergent strategy ideas simply seem to be more relevant to the
world we live in today – they reflect the fact that our plans will fail. This
is not to say that planning isn’t useful, but other than some long term
technology plans, the day of the 5 year and even 2 year plans has faded and
emergent strategy is the reality in most industries that I work with. You must
be much more fleet of foot, strategic flexibility is what we are looking for in
most industries. The boundaries are more fluid now. For many, albeit not all,
knowing what industry you are in is not as clear cut as it once was. This makes
industry analysis less easy. The value chain is now shared across firm
boundaries and at times, in part, in common with competitors.

Though I think that Henry’s ideas have
pulled ahead of Michael’s, I very much keep on an eye on Porter’s thinking. I
interviewed him recently for a weekly videocast I do for the Globe and Mail,
Canada’s National Newspaper, because his new ideas are very much current.
Interestingly both Porter and Mintzberg started to put a great deal of their
attention on Health Care about 8-10 years ago. They approach the topic
differently. Porter is in the U.S. and Mintzberg in Canada, which have quite
different health care systems, yet when I realized this it was clear signal to
me that this is an area that I should pay attention to. The other thing Porter
has been working on, Corporate Social Responsibility, suggests a fairly
fundamental change in how corporate American runs itself. Meanwhile, Henry is
working on Rebalancing Society…radical renewal beyond Smith and Marx.

So when it comes to Strategy I think
Henry’s ideas are au courant. Yet when I consider their most recent
respective work I see that they are looking at two not dissimilar topics,
albeit in different ways. We are indeed fortunate that these two outstanding
minds are still at it when many others are retired. Still two, too very much
keep an eye on!

This new.com/”>Forbes.com column is
called Rethinking Leadership. What I will do one week is to feature
video interviews with top business professors from the world’s leading business
schools on their latest thinking, how they are rethinking what we teach in
B-schools. The other week I will write an on-line column like this one. A key
theme is to ruminate on how younger people, what I call the PostModern
Generation, want to be worked with. A book I am working on is entitled:
PostModernManagement: Leading, Managing Working With Under 35s The Way
They Want To Be


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