Module 2 - SLP
Chronic Stress and Behavioral Response
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Continue your investigation of the effects of stress on brain function and behavior. Read more about the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex in these articles:
“How to Prevent Stress from Shrinking Your Brain,” in Psychology Today
“Stress Effects on Structure and Function of Hippocampus,” by the Rockefeller University
Answer the following questions in paragraph format to write an essay about the findings reported by these articles:
First, do some research on how the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex communicate and result in normal behavioral response. You will begin your reading on the amygdala by following this link. After reading this section, click on several other structures in the brain at the end of the page to read about the interactions between these three regions. Briefly describe this pathway and the behavior that results from the interaction of these regions using 2-3 sentences. This will help you to introduce the content that you will address in the sections below.
Body Paragraph 1
Summarize the effects of glucocorticoids on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex reported in the article How to Prevent Stress from Shrinking Your Brain.
Body Paragraphs 2 and 3
What effect on hippocampal cells have stress hormones had in recent studies described by Stress Effects on Structure and Function of Hippocampus? What effect have they had on the amygdala in studies? What are the implications of these effects? HINT: What are the functions of the regions and how might they be affected by changes in their structure?
Body Paragraph 4
What is neurogenesis and where does it occur in the brain? What effect on the regeneration of hippocampal cells is reported in this article? What is the mechanism?
Conclusion Paragraph 1
Summarize the effects of cortisol on this pathway by describing how PTSD can result from perpetuated cortisol release and how this can result in depression by activating and/or reinforcing depression pathways.
Conclusion Paragraph 2
Describe the methods proposed to counteract the negative effects of chronic stress in How to Prevent Stress from Shrinking Your Brain.
SLP Assignment Expectations
For this assignment, write an essay using the outline above. You are provided with many scholarly references to complete this assignment. Include a References section that lists these and any additional sources you used (refer to the Background page). For any additional research you are required to do to complete your assignment, please use scholarly references such as a peer-reviewed journal article or a government-sponsored or university-sponsored website. As you read through your sources, take notes from your sources and then write your paper in your own words, describing what you have learned from your research. Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example (Murray, 2014). Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit.
Stress and brain response Institution Date Introduction In the study of stress and behavioral response to stress, three main parts of the brain are of interest. These parts are interconnected and influence each other in managing stress. The first part is the amygdala which is related to emotions, and it affects emotional behavior and motivation. The amygdala evaluates threatening situations and is responsible for fear generation (Goleman, 2006). The second area is the prefrontal cortex, made up of anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus and hasa connection to the amygdala. The primary purpose of prefrontal cortex is extinction of fear (Lupien et al., 2009) The main responsibility of the prefrontal cortex in a stressful situation is to neutralize fear and respond to the fear-causing situation adequately. The hippocampus is the part of the brain concerned with memory. During the process of fear conditioning, the hippocampus interacts with the amygdala in encoding emotional memories. Chronic stress damages the hippocampal cells and causes memo