Jan 24, 2018 sample paper 2

“Improved Teacher Training and Professionalism.”

This paper concentrates on the primary theme of “Improved Teacher Training and Professionalism.” in which you have to explain and evaluate its intricate aspects in detail. In addition to this, this paper has been reviewed and purchased by most of the students hence; it has been rated 4.8 points on the scale of 5 points. Besides, the price of this paper starts from £ 45. For more details and full access to the paper, please refer to the site.

GUIDE:Review section 5.4 in your text, “Improved Teacher Training
and Professionalism.” Your text shares a multitude of examples that demonstrate
an increase of quality in teacher training. Describe at least three factors
(e.g., normal schools broadened their curricula to the training of secondary
school teachers, requirement of the completion of high school to be admitted to
college for teacher training, teachers must have a bachelor’s degree,
development and growth of teacher training courses, Herbartianism, teacher
certification, and teacher organizations) that contribute to improved teacher
training in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. Select one contribution and
determine if it is still prevalent today. Explain how you could improve on this
contribution by using technology in your own classroom or school situation.

Chapter 5.4

5.4 Improved Teacher Training and Professionalism

Teacher training benefited
from a strengthening of the curriculum and standards at the normal schools.
Additionally, at the same time that the number of colleges and universities was
increasing, and the role of the university evolving, many universities also
established departments of pedagogy or teacher education. The entry of the
universities into teacher training brought a movement to develop a science of
education and a scientific approach to the learning process. The work of Johann
Herbart was a major contribution to this movement.

Strengthening of the Normal School Curriculum and Standards

Between the end of the Civil
War and 1900, the number of normal schools exploded from 50 to nearly 350.
Unfortunately, in many of these institutions the academic background of both
the faculty and students precluded them from teaching or studying at a
collegiate level: High school completion was seldom required for admission, and
the majority of instructors did not hold a college degree themselves (Diener,
2008). The majority of these institutions focused on the technical training of
teachers rather than providing a broad liberal education.

However, as the new century
advanced, improvements in the quality of faculties, students, and facilities
were matched by an expansion of the curriculum. A burgeoning population had
created an increased demand for elementary and common school teachers, while
the secondary school movement created a concomitant demand for secondary
teachers. Normal schools began to broaden their curricula to include the
training of secondary school teachers, and they began to require high school
completion for admission and college degrees for faculty.

During the second and third
decades of the 20th century, normal schools, responding in part to competition
from colleges and universities entering teacher training (described in the next
section), expanded their programs from 2, to 3, and eventually to 4 years. By
this time many of them were beginning to call themselves state teachers’
colleges and offering B.A. degrees.

The passage of teacher
certification statutes that specified the amount and type of training required of
teachers contributed to this move, as did the requirement by accrediting
agencies that secondary school teachers have bachelor’s degrees. Between 1911
and 1930, there were 88 such conversions (Tyack, 1967). In time, with the
broadening of the curriculum to embrace many of the liberal arts, the
“teacher” designation was dropped and most became simply “state
colleges.” Some of these former normal schools have become among the
largest and most respected universities in the United States.

Universities Enter Teacher Training

Paralleling the development
and growth of teachers’ colleges was the establishment of departments or chairs
of pedagogy in colleges and universities. Teacher training at the college or
university level, typically consisting of one or two courses in the
“science and art” of teaching, had been offered at a limited number
of institutions as early as the 1830s, and the universities had always been
institutions for the education of those who taught in the Latin grammar
schools, academies, and high schools. However, they did not prepare these
students as teachers per se, but as individuals who had advanced knowledge of
certain subject matter.

Universities did not become
involved in teacher preparation to any significant extent until after the Civil
War. Their involvement stemmed from the increased demand for secondary school
teachers, the entrance of the normal schools into the training of secondary
school teachers (to which the universities objected), and the growing
recognition that the professionalization of teaching demanded study of its
theory and practice.

The University of Iowa
established the first permanent chair of pedagogy (education) in 1873. Other
Midwestern universities followed, and in 1892 the New York College for the
Training of Teachers became a part of Columbia University. By the turn of the
century, teacher training departments had become commonplace in the major
colleges and universities. By 1894–1895 there were more than 200 colleges
offering teacher education courses, and 27 had organized departments or schools
of pedagogy (Lagemann, 2000).


An important outgrowth of
the involvement of universities in teacher education was the movement to
develop a science of education and the scientific investigation of educational
problems. One of the earliest contributors to this movement was the German
philosopher and educator, Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841).

Herbart believed that the
development of character was the primary goal of education, and that this could
best be achieved by a scientific approach to the learning process that placed
greater emphasis on the development of ideas and less on emotion and feeling.

Herbart proposed, much along
the lines of current thinking in brain research, that learning takes place through
the process of apperception, by which the child interprets new information in
light of past experiences. By this process two or more ideas become related and
will relate to future ideas or experiences. Thus, teaching must ensure the
association of ideas by making sure the student understands how new material is
related to previous material. Because instruction is most successful if it
stimulates interest, the curriculum should be directed at arousing student
enthusiasm. Such an approach, with its emphasis on the relationship of concepts
and information, was designed to break down the isolation of disciplines found
in the traditional curriculum.

Herbart maintained that any
suitable material could be learned if presented systematically and in successive
steps. The five steps in the Herbartian methodology are as follows:

Preparation—preparing the
student to receive the new material by arousing interest or recalling relevant
past material or experiences.

Presentation—presenting the
new material.

Association—relating or
combining old and new ideas.

general ideas or principles based on both old and new material and experiences.

Application—applying the
ideas or principles to new situations.

Although Herbartianism was
short-lived, its ideas and pedagogy had a profound influence on teaching
methods and the curriculum, particularly at the elementary level, long after
the movement itself faded (Kliebard, 2004). Herbart demonstrated not only the
significance of methodology in instruction, but also, equally important, that
education could become a science. The National Herbartian Society was founded
in 1892 and 8 years later became the National Society of the Scientific Study
of Education. Most books on teaching methods published between 1895 and World
War I were pervaded by Herbartian ideas, and as late as the 1950s the
Herbartian steps could be found in teacher education tests (Connell, 1980).

The Herbartians provided a
well-articulated and methodical approach to education at a time when teachers
and teacher education were seeking just such a systematic and comprehensive
view (Connell, 1980). Before the end of the 19th century, teachers across the
country began organizing lessons around the five steps. Although many of them may
have done so rather mechanically, the process did force attention to

Teacher Certification

The growing public school
system demanded not just more teachers but more qualified teachers trained in
the most recent educational pedagogy and psychology. The traditional method of
assessing teacher quality had been certification following a written
examination and often an oral examination by a lay committee. However, the
ability and objectivity of these panels was always suspect. In a Baptist area Congregationalist
teachers might not be hired, and vice versa. In the South, prospective teachers
might be hired only if they said that states’ rights had caused the Civil War,
and in the North only if they blamed slavery (Tyack, 1967). The written exams in
most states, although free of bias, tested only what might be expected of a
common school graduate and contained no questions on pedagogy.

This began to change by the
mid-19th century, as state departments of education became involved in teacher
certification. In 1843 New York authorized the state superintendent to set
examinations and issue certificates that would be valid statewide. Indiana
followed in 1852, Pennsylvania in 1854, and by the end of the century the
superintendents of most other states were given the same authority (Angus,
2001). By 1921, 26 states issued all certificates, 7 states developed the
regulations and examinations but the county issued the certificate, and 12
states developed regulations and questions but the county administered the
examination and issued the certificate (Butts & Cremin, 1953).

At the same time that
certification was being centralized at the state level, certification
requirements were being upgraded. In 1900 no state required high school
graduation for certification. In the first decade of the 20th century, this
changed as a few states began to require high school graduation for an
elementary school teaching certificate and in others the number of years of
secondary school completion required for certification was increased to 2, 3,
or 4.

By 1921, 4 states required
high school graduation plus some professional training of their teachers, and
14 states required high school graduation but no professional training. Thirty
states did not yet specify any academic requirement for certification (Butts
& Cremin, 1953). Nonetheless, the trend toward increasing certification
requirements had clearly begun. In the years to come, certification
requirements would increasingly define who was qualified to teach and what knowledge
teachers should possess.

.stateuniversity.com/pages/2040/Herbart-Johann-1776-1841.html”>The Career and Contributions of Johann Herbert


  • Webb. L. D. (2014)..next.ecollege.com/default/launch.ed?ssoType=CDMS&redirectUrl=https://content.ashford.edu/ssologin?bookcode=AUEDU324.14.1″>History of American education:
    Voices and perspectives
    . San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
    • Chapter 5.4: Improved Teacher Training and

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