Jul 21, 2017 Research papers

Fingerprint History

This paper concentrates on the primary theme of Fingerprint History in which you have to explain and evaluate its intricate aspects in detail. In addition to this, this paper has been reviewed and purchased by most of the students hence; it has been rated 4.8 points on the scale of 5 points. Besides, the price of this paper starts from £ 40. For more details and full access to the paper, please refer to the site.

Fingerprint History

INSTRUCTIONS:

Prompt: Write an essay describing what you think are the most important milestones in the history of fingerprinting. Here are some notes from me the student that can help. I included people and important years. Fingerprinting History Pre-historic picture writing of a hand with ridge patterns was discovered in Nova Scotia. In ancient Babylon, fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. In ancient China, thumb prints were found on clay seals. In 14th century Persia, various official government papers had fingerprints (impressions), and one government official, a doctor, observed that no two fingerprints were exactly alike. Marcello Malpighi: In 1686, Marcello Malpighi, a professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna, noted in his treatise; ridges, spirals and loops in fingerprints. He made no mention of their value as a tool for individual identification. A layer of skin was named after him; "Malpighi" layer, which is approximately 1.8mm thick. John Evangelist Purkinji: In 1823, John Evangelist Purkinji, a professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau, published his thesis discussing 9 fingerprint patterns, but he too made no mention of the value of fingerprints for personal identification. Sir William Hershel - 1856: The English first began using fingerprints in July of 1858, when Sir William Herschel, Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in Jungipoor, India, first used fingerprints on native contracts. On a whim, and with no thought toward personal identification, Herschel had Rajyadhar Konai, a local businessman, impress his hand print on the back of a contract. The idea was merely ". . . to frighten [him] out of all thought of repudiating his signature." The native was suitably impressed, and Herschel made a habit of requiring palm prints--and later, simply the prints of the right Index and Middle fingers--on every contract made with the locals. Personal contact with the document, they believed, made the contract more binding than if they simply signed it. Thus, the first wide-scale, modern-day use of fingerprints was predicated, not upon scientific evidence, but upon superstitious beliefs. As his fingerprint collection grew, however, Herschel began to note that the inked impressions could, indeed, prove or disprove identity. While his experience with fingerprinting was admittedly limited, Sir Herschel`s private conviction that all fingerprints were unique to the individual, as well as permanent throughout that individual`s life, inspired him to expand their use. Dr. Henry Faulds - 1880: During the 1870`s, Dr. Henry Faulds, the British Surgeon-Superintendent of TsukijiHospital in Tokyo, Japan, took up the study of "skin-furrows" after noticing finger marks on specimens of "prehistoric" pottery. A learned and industrious man, Dr. Faulds not only recognized the importance of fingerprints as a means of identification, but devised a method of classification as well. In 1880, Faulds forwarded an explanation of his classification system and a sample of the forms he had designed for recording inked impressions, to Sir Charles Darwin. Darwin, in advanced age and ill health, informed Dr. Faulds that he could be of no assistance to him, but promised to pass the materials on to his cousin, Francis Galton. Also in 1880, Dr. Faulds published an article in the Scientific Journal, "Nautre" (nature). He discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle. Gilbert Thompson -In 1882, Gilbert Thompson of the U.S. Geological Survey in New Mexico, used his own fingerprints on a document to prevent forgery. This is the first known use of fingerprints in the United States. Mark Twain (Samuel L. Clemens) - 1883. In Mark Twain`s book, "Life on the Mississippi", a murderer was identified by the use of fingerprint identification. In a later book by Mark Twain, "Pudd`n Head Wilson", there was a dramatic court trial on fingerprint identification. A more recent movie was made from this book. Sir Francis Galton - 1888, a British anthropologist and a cousin of Charles Darwin, began his observations of fingerprints as a means of identification in the 1880`s. In 1892, he published his book, "Fingerprints", establishing the individuality and permanence of fingerprints. The book included the first classification system for fingerprints. Galton`s primary interest in fingerprints was as an aid in determining heredity and racial background. While he soon discovered that fingerprints offered no firm clues to an individual`s intelligence or genetic history, he was able to scientifically prove what Herschel and Faulds already suspected: that fingerprints do not change over the course of an individual`s lifetime, and that no two fingerprints are exactly the same. According to his calculations, the odds of two individual fingerprints being the same were 1 in 64 billion. Galton identified the characteristics by which fingerprints can be identified. These same characteristics (minutia) are basically still in use today, and are often referred to as Galton`s Details. Juan Vucetich- In 1891, Juan Vucetich, an Argentine Police Official, began the first fingerprint files based on Galton pattern types. At first, Vucetich included the Bertillon System with the files. Important Years: 1901: Introduction of fingerprints for criminal identification in England and Wales, using Galton`s observations and revised by Sir Edward Richard Henry. Thus began the Henry Classification System, used even today in all English speaking countries. 1903: The New York State Prison system began the first systematic use of fingerprints in U.S. for criminals. 1904: The use of fingerprints began in Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary in Kansas, and the St. Louis Police Department. They were assisted by a Sergeant from Scotland Yard who had been on duty at the St. Louis Exposition guarding the British Display. 1905: saw the use of fingerprints for the U.S. Army. Two years later the U.S. Navy started, and was joined the next year by the Marine Corp. During the next 25 years more and more law enforcement agencies join in the use of fingerprints as a means of personal identification. Many of these agencies began sending copies of their fingerprint cards to the National Bureau of Criminal Identification, which was established by the International Association of Police Chiefs. 1924: In 1924, an act of congress established the Identification Division of the F.B.I.. The National Bureau and Leavenworth consolidated to form the nucleus of the F.B.I. fingerprint files.With the introduction of AFIS technology, the files were split into computerized criminal files and manually maintained civil files. Many of the manual files were duplicates though, the records actually represented somewhere in the neighborhood of 25 to 30 million criminals, and an unknown number of individuals in the civil files. By 1999, the FBI had planned to stop using paper fingerprint cards (at least for the newly arriving civil fingerprints) inside their new Integrated AFIS (IAFIS) site at Clarksburg, WV. Old paper fingerprint cards for the civil files are still manually maintained in a warehouse facility (rented shopping center space) in Fairmont, WV. Since the Gulf War, most military fingerprint enlistment cards received have been filed only alphabetically by name. The FBI hopes to someday classify and file these cards so they can be of value for unknown casualty (or amnesiac) identification (when no passenger/victim list from a flight, etc., is known). Currently paper fingerprint cards are still in use and being processed for all identification purposes.

CONTENT:
Name:Tutor:Course:Date:Fingerprint HistoryThe history of fingerprinting dates back several centuries ago. However, during those times, fingerprinting was not much advanced as it is at present. The prehistoric Babylonians used fingerprinting as a form of a signature when doing business transactions. Likewise, the Chinese applied ink-on-paper fingerprints for commercial transactions as well as to aid in distinguishing their siblings. Nevertheless, fingerprints were not at all used as a technique for detecting law breakers pending the 19th century. During 1858, an Englishman known as Sir William Herschel was employed as the Chief Magistrate at Hooghly district in Jungipoor, India. He wanted to lower fraud and any misconduct in the institution. To achieve this, he ensured that the entire inhabitants in the area registered their fingerprints when assenting to commercial records. A few decades afterwards, Scottish physician Henry Faulds was employed in Japan when he found fingerprints abandoned by artists on early portions of clay. This discovery encouraged him to start researching about fingerprints. During 1880, Faulds scripted to his cousin, the popular ecologist Charles Darwin, and requested him to aid him in establishing a fingerprint sorting me...


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