Aug 15, 2017

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND MANAGEMENT- CONCENTRATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

This paper concentrates on the primary theme of ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND MANAGEMENT- CONCENTRATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY in which you have to explain and evaluate its intricate aspects in detail. In addition to this, this paper has been reviewed and purchased by most of the students hence; it has been rated 4.8 points on the scale of 5 points. Besides, the price of this paper starts from £ 40. For more details and full access to the paper, please refer to the site.

WEEK 10 – DRAFT RESEARCH PAPER DUE

 

 

Instructor Comments:

I am happy with where you are at.  Please proceed to collect data.  Continue to expand the lit review as well.  Nice job so far!

 

BELOW IS MY PROPOSAL:

I propose to the Thesis/Research Paper Professor and to the Department a study of the following topic to be conducted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Environmental Policy and Management- Concentration in Environmental Sustainability. In discussing various negative environmental implications in relation to the development of solar panel systems and also to identify technological innovations which can be used in future power systems.

ABSTRACT

This research study will place emphasis on an interesting area which is often ignored by practitioners. It is clearly evident that extensive use of solar energy has enabled many economies to restrict their dependency on non-renewable energy sources. The utility-scale solar power systems have negatively influenced environmental conditions. Qualitative research approach will be employed to discuss various negative environmental implications in relation to the development of solar panel systems. The main purpose of this research study is to identify technological innovations which can be used in future power systems. On the basis of such recommended power systems, solar energy will cause zero environmental impact.

INTRODUCTION

In the last few decades, overconsumption of various non-renewable energy sources has shifted focused towards increased usage of solar energy. The use of solar energy systems is considered to be most convenient in order to prevent degradation in non-renewable energy sources. It is also witnessed that increased use of fossil fuels for producing energy is becoming a key source behind the rapidly pacing trend of global warming. The preference towards solar energy systems has increased mainly because of their natural, ultra-clean and sustainable characteristics (Kalogirou, 2013).  In the current scenario, solar energy is intensively used in solar lighting appliances, solar electricity, solar cooking appliances, etc. There are numerous research studies being conducted so as to reflect upon technological advancements for effectively integrating solar energy within the wide range of daily operations. In many countries, such as Africa, lump-sum investment is being made in solar panels so as to reduce consumption level of non-renewable energy sources (Ohunakin et al., 2014).

Therefore, as has been noted the research study will reflect upon determining all negative aspects inter-linked with using solar energy and also conducting the EIA so as to identify the negative influential factors closely knitted with the use of solar energy and with the EIA, it shall be easier to identify the scope of technological innovations.

Problem Statement

Sun, as a renewable energy resource, provides sustainable and clean electricity without any kind of global warming emissions or toxic pollution. However, limited research studies have been conducted on the loopholes still prevalent in relation to effectively using solar energy. There are some potential environmental impacts closely inter-related with solar power, such as extensive water use, habitat loss and land use, the inclusion of hazardous substances within the manufacturing process, etc. The negative environmental implications due to the manufacturing process tend to vary across two main categories, such as concentrating solar thermal plants and photovoltaic solar cells. For this research study, the main problem area that has been identified will be used to evaluate whether usage of solar energy is relatively more feasible or not.

LITERATURE REVIEW

According to EIA (2016), solar power can be defined as the use of solar energy to directly convert into electrical energy. Developed countries are using solar power to conserve limited volume of non-renewable energy sources. The system for solar power generation mainly comprises of the controller, solar module, inverters, batteries, lighting load, etc. It is evident that companies need to invest sufficient amount in the manufacturing process of solar panels. For the power system, the main components used are batteries and solar battery components. On the other hand, for the protection and control system, the main elements are inverter and controller. The lighting load is basically used for all of the system terminals. In the overall context, a complex system infrastructure is used for the production of electricity by using solar energy (EIA, 2016).

As denoted by Ellabban, Abu-Rub, and Blaabjerg (2014), in comparison to the current conventional energy sources, solar energy systems provide a wide array of benefits. At a global scale, solar energy can be effectively stored for conducting daily operations and producing electricity which was earlier produced only through burning fossil fuels. Solar energy systems have successfully contributed towards the sustainable development of various human activities (Ellabban, Abu-Rub, and Blaabjerg, 2014). Arguably, solar energy systems have not proved to be harmful in case of small-scale production. At a wider-scale, increased production of solar panels can be considered as a major threat to the environment. Solar energy itself is not harmful to the external environment. It can be stated that solar energy is basically a clean form of energy which efficiently caters the global warming concern associated with usage of non-renewable energy sources. Solar energy systems have definitely transformed the way in which power is generated across the globe, as highlighted by Nunez (2014).  As per Shafiei and Salim (2014), the trend of adopting renewable energy sources is only because of the harmful effects associated with carbon emissions. Solar energy is considered to be one of the most common forms of renewable energy.  The negative impact of solar power is greatly associated with habitat loss, land use, the inclusion of harmful materials and extensive use of water in the production of solar panels. Solar power facility is rarely used in homes since the solar panels used for converting solar power into electricity is highly expensive (Shafiei and Salim, 2014).  Arguably, the establishment of solar power facility at a utility-scale requires a wide base of land. As stated in Union of Concerned Scientists (2013), soil erosion is the primary negative environmental implication of using solar power. Extensive usage of land can result in degraded soil quality. Soil erosion and compaction can be stated as the ultimate outcomes of using a large base of land for production of solar energy systems. The negative environmental impact is primarily caused during the manufacturing process. It can be stated that land quality is affected by solar energy systems, specifically during the process of materials exploration, manufacturing, disposal and extraction (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2013).  According to Ellabban, Abu-Rub, and Blaabjerg (2014), solar energy is not responsible for producing water or air pollution or even greenhouse emissions. The use of toxic materials such as cadmium and silicon is mandatory in the production of solar panels. For manufacturing photovoltaic cells, use of such toxic materials is highly important. In a broader context, solar energy systems do not cause global warming and even helps to safeguard non-renewable energy sources (Ellabban, Abu-Rub, and Blaabjerg, 2014).

HYPOTHESIS AND OR RESEARCH QUESTIONS

With this research, the key questions to address are:

  • What are the negative environmental implications of using solar energy?
  • Are solar panels really “green” in environment context?
  • What is the scope of future technological innovations in order to eliminate potential negative implications of using solar power?

PURPOSE STATEMENT

The purpose statement of this research study can be stated as – to identify innovative ways using which potential benefits associated with solar energy can be effectively explored. The consumption trend of electricity in developed economies is completely different from developing economies. For instance, there are geographical regions in third world countries which are not able to access 2 to 3 hours of continuous electricity in a day. For every human being, whether residing in developing or developed economy, electricity can be considered as one of the basic necessities. In this thesis, all loopholes in the current solar panels will be properly evaluated in order to suggest future technological innovations. Countries, where electricity is a major problem, use of such advanced technology-based solar panels will be highly beneficial. Therefore, this research will take a deep look into how to provide solutions for future power systems in developing countries with negligible to zero impact on the environment.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Convenience sampling technique will be used and shall provide required guidance in terms of selecting the essential articles revolving around the topic area. One main reason behind selecting convenience sampling technique for this research paper is, for instance, it cannot be assumed that a specific number of articles will be chosen for the research study, So a detailed review will require contradictory scholarly opinions. Hence, a wide range of scholarly articles and government reports would be needed in order to accomplish set research objectives.       Articles or reports shall be selected consisting of appropriate keywords relating to solar power systems, negative impacts of solar energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and production of solar panels, etc. Convenience sampling also will enable me to identify other areas of a problem linked to the chosen area of focus. This study will cover dual subject areas. It will focus on the main research problem and even suggest technological innovations for future power systems.

SAMPLING

Convenience sampling method will be employed in order to group the collected literature into distinct segments. the main sampling strategy will be to collect some scholarly articles on the chosen research topic and on the basis of convenience sampling method, it shall be easier for me to choose between most relevant and least relevant articles. The sampling strategy will group articles under land use, emission of greenhouse gasses, human well-being and health conditions, geo-hydrological resources and adverse impact on habitat and wildlife.

Procedures

For this study, qualitative research approach shall be applied. The qualitative study will be exhibited in the form of content analysis, as this would allow me to take into account existing literature or information published in a government report in order to address the framed research objectives.  In addition, scholarly evidence will be collected through accessing some relevant journals.  In particular, those journals which consist of appropriate information relating to environmental impact caused by the use of solar energy. Google Scholar and APUS Library. This will be the preferred platform for searching suitable journal articles. The search strategy will be based on usage of specific keywords. For the database search, the keywords to be used are – “are solar panel green?”, “negative aspects of solar energy”, “environmental implications of solar panels”, “environmental hazards by using solar power system”, “greenhouse gas emissions and production of solar panels”, etc. In this research, I shall collect a wide set of literature, review them and provide further recommendations for future technological innovations.

The procedures will encompass collecting secondary data from a government website or other relevant websites. It will not only revolve around a collection of appropriate information but will include comparing the intensity of impacts. Secondary data provided will comprise of real-time evidence indicating negative environmental implications of using solar power systems. In addition, the study will follow a qualitative form of research analysis, but it shall encompass quantitative results in the form of statistical evidence, graphs, tables, etc. where appropriate. The sample data presented in a tabular format shall be evaluated to arrive at a proper conclusion.

DATA ANALYSIS

In the research methods section, I will focus on determining the negative aspects of solar energy. The content analysis will help me to predict the viewpoint of scholars in terms of exploring the negative influence of using solar power panels as future technological innovations which can only be suggested when the current environmental problems are well identified in relation to manufacturing solar power panels. Therefore, a scholarly overview of multiple authors will be compared and contrasted in order to arrive at a conclusion.

Scholarly literature shall be supported with some real-time data on developing or developed economies. Some statistical evidence shall also be incorporated highlighting the increasing trend of environmental impact due to utility-scale solar panel production in the last few years. The data will then be interpreted by taking into account gathered literature. Hence, a cross-sectional analysis shall be used to analyze the overall negative environmental implications caused due to the usage of solar energy. However, on the basis of statistical evidence or other real-time market data, it will be easier to correlate two factors, i.e. enhanced production of solar panels and negative environmental implications. So at the end, after reviewing all scholarly evidence, some critical information will be grouped under a particular table. The integrated information should provide a broader picture regarding my views on increasing or decreasing trend of environmental implications of solar energy systems.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

EIA. (2016). Solar energy and the environment. Retrieved from: http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/?page=solar_environment.

Ellabban, O., Abu-Rub, H. and Blaabjerg, F. (2014). Renewable energy resources: Current status, future prospects, and their enabling technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39, 748-764.

Kalogirou, S. A. (2013). Solar energy engineering: Processes and systems. New York: Academic Press.

Noppers, E. H., Keizer, K., Bolderdijk, J. W. and Steg, L. (2014). The adoption of sustainable innovations: Driven by symbolic and environmental motives. Global Environmental Change, 25, 52-62.

Nunez, C. (2014). How green are those solar panels, really? Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2014/11/141111-solar-panel-manufacturing-sustainability-ranking/.

Ohunakin, O. S., Adaramola, M. S., Oyewola, O. M. and Fagbenle, R. O. (2014). Solar energy applications and development in Nigeria: Drivers and barriers. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 32, 294-301.

Ondraczek, J. (2013). The sun rises in the east (of Africa): A comparison of the development and status of solar energy markets in Kenya and Tanzania. Energy Policy56, 407-417.

Shafiei, S. and Salim, R. A. (2014). Non-renewable and renewable energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in OECD countries: A comparative analysis. Energy Policy, 66, 547-556.

Turney, D. and Fthenakis, V. (2011). Environmental impacts from the installation and operation of large-scale solar power plants. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(6), 3261-3270.

Union of Concerned Scientists. (2013). Environmental impacts of solar power. Retrieved from: http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/environmental-impacts-solar-power.html#.WKG61dJ97IU.



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