This paper concentrates on the primary theme of Employee commitment and engagement of Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) in which you have to explain and evaluate its intricate aspects in detail. In addition to this, this paper has been reviewed and purchased by most of the students hence; it has been rated 4.8 points on the scale of 5 points. Besides, the price of this paper starts from £ 40. For more details and full access to the paper, please refer to the site.
The review of literature deliberates on various academic books and scholarly articles that have been authored in the light of employee commitment and engagement. The review of literature also investigates previous research on Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) in the area of employee engagement and commitment. This literature review takes keen consideration on the research models, results of previous studies on this area as well as research recommendations proposed by the researchers therein. There is no previous research examining the employee commitment and engagement in ICBC. However, there exist numerous researches on the topic of employee commitment and engagement in other sectors and regions. Such research is imperative to this study through provision of in-depth insight to the topic of engagement and commitment of employees.
Employee Engagement and Commitment
Employee commitment and engagement are ambiguous terms and are commonly used by human resource (HR) practitioners and academic researchers in reference to a specific dimension of practice (Macey and Schneider, 2008). These terms are commonly used in diverse times to explain psychological state, characteristics, attribute as well as behaviors in perceiving their antecedents and results. Researchers are slowly establishing a joint approach between the terms through establishment of a meaningful construct on their application (Chalofsky and Krishna, 2009). Organizational approach suggests a positive relationship between employee commitment and engagement and the overall organizational output. Employee engagement has been positively linked to improved profitability, better work relations, increased productivity, and satisfaction of customers as well as high retention of employees (Yalabik et al, 2014). Some researchers however view employee engagement as having developed from work perceptions implying that the more recent notion is interpretative and extends beyond the spectrum of the term through inclusion of diverse implications. The concept of employee commitment and engagement has experienced rapid evolution within the practitioners’ fraternity leading to unclear definition of the construct. This has been partially influenced by relative evolution of applied organizational psychology construct (Shuck, 2011).
Sonenshein and Dholakia (2012) indicate that employee engagement is a term that developed in 21st century and has proved useful to the HR practitioners in organizations. The term seems to integrate various pertinent HR aspects such as employee involvement, job satisfaction, job design as well as motivation. According to Yalabik et al (2014), employee engagement depicts change in organizational approach to employees and the anticipations of the employees in their employers. These terms have been facilitated by the changing trends in employee job satisfaction and motivational factors where individuals are currently looking for personal accomplishments in their careers and not only inspired by the financial incentives. Additionally, recent changes in corporate world demand for increased flexibility, teamwork, and formation of talent based teams. The new organizational model hence demands extra involvement and contribution of employees through what is expressed as engagement. Welch (2011) indicates that there is limited empirical evidence and research on workers engagement which is attributed to recent fast growth of the terms. Critics however argue that the concept of employee commitment and engagement is a repackaging of renowned HR concepts and does not bring new insight to organizational performance and management.
An engaged workforce has got a direct relationship with the performance of the organization and directly influences the organizational behavior. Disengaged workers attract expenses for the organizations as a result of reduced productivity, high rate of employee turnover, and negative job attitudes, hence the need of attaining an engaged workforce (Shuck, 2011). Employee work engagement involves three key dimensions which include dedication among the workers, vigor on the job as well as absorption of on-job pressures. Vigor involves extreme levels of employee resilience and energy towards the job, enthusiasm to invest ones efforts on the job and the ability not easily tire while faced by challenges. Dedication is observed as the strong attachment to the job and having a sense of pleasure with the job while showing strong participation. Absorption on the other hand involves enjoying the state of being engrossed in the work and ones inability to disconnect from the job (Yalabik et al, 2014). Chalofsky and Krishna (2009) in their study established that employee work engagement is communicated through job enthusiasm. The author further established that engaged employees view their job as their energy source, something they would like to further endow their efforts in, and give more concentration.
Commitment is a self-drive force which attaches an individual to a specific course of action with an objective of achieving a certain target. Employee commitment has been widely researched and is explained as the psychological connection between a worker and their organization. Basically, employee commitment is divided into three spectrums, that is, the affective commitment which explains the employee’s emotional connection to the organization, the continuance commitment which explains the employee’s costs of quitting the organization and finally, the normative commitment which involves an employee’s obligation towards continued service to the organization (Ibrahim and Perez, 2014). The dimension of effective commitment is found to have the greatest impact on an organization whereby it’s positively correlated to job satisfaction, employee turnover, rate of absenteeism, and employee on-job behavior. Employee commitment is rather diverse and may not necessarily mean commitment to the organization but may involve dedication to parties or agents important to the well being of the employing organization. Internal commitment may involve dedication to work groups, teams and team leaders while external commitment may involve dedication to pertinent organization partners such as clients and professional firms (Macey and Schneider, 2008).
There exist diverse approaches in conceptualization and measurement of commitment in organizations a situation that that has prompted difficulties in interpretation of results on the subject’s research area Gagné and Bhave (2011). Shin Taylor and Seo (2012) indicates that commitment in organization lies between two perspectives which include the attitudinal and behavioural point of view. The author describes attitudinal commitment as the course in which people conceptualize their relationship with the organization. That is, how their individual goals and values complement those of the organization. On the other hand, behavioural commitment involves how people become affixed to a certain organization and their reaction to it. Research has widely explored both aspects of commitment. In the attitudinal perspective, research has widely covered the antecedent factors that influence the growth of commitment and the behavioural results. On the area of behavioural aspect, research has concentrated in establishments of conditions in which once behaviour is exhibited tends to recur, and the effect of such behaviour on modification of attitudes.
Whitener (2001) indicates that commitment leads to proactive behaviours among employees as opposed to the traditional workforce management which often resulted to reactive behaviours. Commitment is observed as an indicator of a dependable workforce which has prompted many studies to review its antecedents such as organizational, personal and individual characteristics. Various studies have also explored the effects of commitment such as job performance, one’s intention to quit job, as well as job turnover. Meyer, Becker and Vandenberghe (2004) connects employee job commitment with a person’s intrinsic obligation to serve the organization rather than circumstantial conditions such as organization goals and values which may imply a worker’s commitment. The author further indicates that commitment comprises of the individual’s need, desire and compulsion to remain in an organization. The study describes commitment as the strength in which a person wishes to identify and get involved in a certain organization. The authors proposed the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) as the best measure of employees’ commitment in an organization. The OCQ comprises of a 15-item scale which assess the components of commitment in employees.
Mowday, Porter and Steers (2013) views commitment as continuance of an action through recognition of the effects or costs that one may experience upon termination of such furtherance. The study describes commitment as consistence in ones line of activity. It serves as a disposition for one to engage in a specific action to avoid losing the benefits in case such an activity was discontinued. Organizations can enhance employees’ commitment through provision of specific benefits such as pension and leadership positions which becomes contingent to an individual with continued service delivery to that organization. Similarly, (Macey and Schneider, 2008) describes commitment as the urge of an employee to remain loyal and devoted to his or her obligations in the organization due to the profits accrued for being a worker in that firm and adversities of leaving. Employees may be cynical of the costs associated with leaving the organization through job termination and may decide to remain dedicated to their work. Chalofsky and Krishna (2009) however, views commitment to be related to the idea that an employee may not be willing to leave his or her job due psychological attachment. The author disregards the personal effect from leaving or continuing with the job.
According to Sonenshein and Dholakia (2012), the definitions of commitment and engagement exhibits high level of similarity between the terms. Commitment is observed to be cognitive whilst engagement seems to have aspects of being cognitive and emotional. This view facilitates the knowledge of the nature of the two terms. The author suggests that employee engagement contains more contemporary and less common construct than employee commitment. Fernet, Austin and Vallerand (2012) in their study proposed Gallup Q12 as the best and most extensively method used to measure aspects of employee commitment and engagement in a research. The “12-item” scale is suitable in measuring actionable work-group level prospects or the general requirements in the place of work. These includes the clarity of the job prospects, essential job tools, feeling of one’s importance to the organization, availability of a chance for employees to discuss their job growth expectations, as well as a sense of belonging among the employees. Another popular tool identified by the author is the 9-item scale tool (Attridge, 2009) which measures rational and emotional employee engagement. Currently, the attention in more concentrated on the organization rather than the employee or the work unit.
Significance of Employee Commitment and Engagement in Organizations
Employee commitment and engagement has gathered a lot of popularity recently and much knowledge is required by HR about the significance of this dimension to workforce productivity in organizations. HR professionals and other workforce related stakeholders has gained much interest on workers commitment and engagement resulting from numerous claims that both engagement and commitment have positive correlation to satisfaction of customers, organizational productivity, firm profitability as well as workforce retention. Additionally, engagement leads to organizational success and causes favourable performance in business and better results (Hill et al, 2012).
Organizations and especially the professional service firms such as financial institutions rely on their employees’ commitment and engagement to achieve the objectives of the firm and to outdo their competitors. Research also indicates that engagement and commitment of employees also enables organizations to achieve outstanding knowledge-based results (Welch, 2011). Ibrahim and Perez (2014) indicate that it is important for service based organizations to clearly recognize the constructs of engagement and commitment among the employees as well as the relationship between these terms in the corporate environment. An unambiguous understanding of these constructs is imperative in the context of service business firms given that these organizations relies the skills and knowledge of their workers for the planning and conveyance of knowledge guided results. Yalabik et al (2014) in their study indicate that employees in service organizations are equalized by the nature of their work where they are expected to create a balance between their individual expectations and those of the organization, clients, and professionals. Based on these facts, the author indicates that employee engagement in the organization will enhance their commitment to their organization, their profession, their firm’s clients, and professionals.
The banking sector requires highly committed and engaged workers to succeed. Banking industry relies on the contribution of employees to achieve its business objectives as well competitive performance of the organizations. Engaged and committed workers facilitate the profitability of their organizations by being productive, goal oriented and long-term service delivery to the organization (Sonenshein and Dholakia, 2012). Cho and Park (2011) indicates that workers’ commitment and engagement is associated with increased level of customer satisfaction, employees abrasion, increased loyalty enhanced job output as well as substantial profitability. A study by Meyer, Stanley and Parfyonova (2012) connected the same to the impact on the customers and financial outcomes. The study indicated that engaged workers also show despicable levels of commitment and are also passionate with their work. The authors also indicates that endeavor in business is achieved from fully engaged and committed workforce. According to Sarangi and Srivastava (2012), organizations are slowly gaining the recognition of maintaining a committed and engaged workforce. The author indicates that employees have a great potential in pushing the objectives of the business firm forward through exerting discretionary labor force for the organization.
Little and Little (2006) indicates that the level of employee engagement and commitment varies among different types of employees, organizations and different countries. The results obtained also depend on the type of measure adopted by the researcher. Kompaso and Sridevi (2010) for example, in their study established that there exist roughly consistent results in researches focusing on engagement and commitment of employees. The study suggested that a maximum of a fifth of employees are engaged with the possibility of a lower figure in some cases. The study further suggests that a similar proportion of employees are disengaged and uncommitted while approximately two thirds are disengaged. Shuck and Wollard (2010) in a study established that engagement and commitment levels are higher among employees working in non-profit making organizations other than for profit organizations. The study also established a significant variance of the constructs in an organization where unsurprisingly, senior workers and executives recorded the highest levels of job commitment and engagement while casual and contractual workers recorded the lowest levels.
Gagné and Bhave (2011) established that seniority in organizations is associated with increased engagement and commitment among the workers. Connectively, the author identified that professional careers attracted high level of engagement and commitment among the workers. Additionally, the study suggested that employee engagement and commitment levels may decline as the age of the workers increases. A similar retrogressive relationship was observed with the length of service. The study established that the level of employee commitment and engagement is likely to decrease with period of service to the organization. Brunetto et al (2012) suggests that job rotation could be used as a tool to enhance employee performance. The author suggests that employees are likely to maintain the same level of job commitment and engagement while faced with a set of new challenges. Performance of similar tasks for a long time may lead to job burnout and may negatively affect employees’ morale, job satisfaction and level of motivation. Cantor, Morrow and Montabon (2012) established that high levels of workers commitment and engagement are linked to elevated levels of employee job contentment, low workers turnover and superior customer contentment.
Regarding to the significance of employee commitment and engagement in the banking sector, Albdour and Altarawneh (2014) studied the implications of employee commitment and engagement in the Jordan banking sector. The study comprised of forefront employees in the Jordan banking sector. The study focused on 23 banks in Jordan where the researchers collected information relevant for the study from approximately 2393 forefront bank employees. The main reason for seeking information from frontline workers is because production and consumption of the service runs concurrently in the service industry. Therefore, frontline employees are the ones who interact with the customers and determine the quality of service. Additionally, frontline employees run through elevated level of emotional fatigue than other employees in the service industry. The study through regression analysis established that employee job commitment can be forecast by engagement. The results of the study correlate to those of other studies where affective job commitment was established to be a crucial factor to job engagement. The study results imply that employees who positive sufficient job-related mindset is likely to show a positive stance in regard to working in the bank and show high levels of commitment in work.
Abbasi and Alvi (2012) in their study about spirit of employees at their work stations as well as engagement in the Pakistan banking sector established that there exist a positive relationship between employee engagement and their spirit while working. The study further established the reward system as a key component to facilitate an engaged workforce in the organization. The study suggests that bank managers should introduce different employee reward systems to boost their morale at work hence improving their work engagement. The study also recommends bank managers to minimize factors which reduce the level of work commitment among bank employees. Bal, Kooij and De Jong (2013) indicates that efficient and systemized workforce management leads to the success of a business venture. Human capital management is a key factor in organizational success and acts as a driving force to a highly motivated workforce. The author in his study established that the system of reward management has a positive effect on job satisfaction in employees in the corporate business and especially the banking sector. The key motivation to any workforce is to earn better income. Kehoe and Wright (2013) in their study indicated that monetary rewards are the most effective force in increasing the workforce performance. The study further established that work engagement was positively related with remuneration where employees who received high pay packages showed elevated levels of job engagement.
Regarding the effects of employee engagement and commitment in organizations, Shuck, Reio and Rocc (2011) found out that the level of work engagement increases parallel to the level of organizational commitment. The study was mainly focused in the service industry due to the direct relationship between work attitudes and job output. Similar to previous studies, the research established cordial relationship between job commitment and engagement. It was established that increase in the level of job engagement among employees leads to high levels of job commitment which leads to enhanced job satisfaction among workers, increased job performance, and discloses a wider demonstration of individual ideas, better work attitudes as well as low workers turnover. Likewise, Bushra, Usman and Naveed (2011) conducted a study among 102 employees working in the banking sector in Lahore. The chief motive of the study was to assess a model of the antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement on organizations. The study found out that engagement in employees takes form of an intercession role in the correlation between the precursor and the effects of job engagement.
Dirani (2009) concluded that a job environment which is perceived by workers to be safe psychologically and meaningful usually lead to elevated levels of job commitment in the organization’s work. The research also found out that psychological environment in a workplace to be connected to the cognitive state of satisfaction in a particular job as well as commitment and level of motivation. Through effective use of the Job Demands Resource (JDR) model, the study showed that job resources have an impact on future job engagement which in turn influences the level of organizational commitment. It was also established that job demands have significant effect on engagement and commitment since they foretell job burn out in the short-run and job depression in the long-run. The model was developed to investigate the extent to which job demands and job resources can affect employees’ output in an organization. Further evidences were also established in previous literature regarding the effect of engagement and commitment of employees in organizations. A study by Maslach et al. (2001) sought to analyze literature on job burnout in the past 25 years. The review revealed six key areas which can cause job engagement in the working life of an employee. These include the workload, job controls, reward system, social support services, perceived values and fairness. They established that perceived fairness, competent reward system, existence of proper social support services as well as value work can lead to enhanced levels of work engagement among employees. They further found that engagement is the mediating factor between the six areas of an employee’s work-life factors and job outcome such as commitment, job contentment and job length.
In a similar study, Hakanen et al. (2006) conducted a research on the ability of job exhaustion among employees in the service industry while trying to interrelate between on-job stress and ailing health, and also investigate interrelation of job engagement with organizational commitment and work resources. The authors established that burnout was the main cause of high job needs on ill health while work engagement influenced the effects of work resources on commitment. In another corresponding study Llorens et al. (2006) investigated on the interrelations roles of job burnout and engagement on the connection between job demand and resources and commitment in organizations. The study relied upon two convenience samples collected from Danish and Spanish employees. The results indicated that burnout was a major influencing factor on the connection between job demand and resource as well as commitment. The study conveyed that engagement was a partial influencing factor towards organizational commitment.
Development and maintenance of a high quality workforce is one of the chief priorities of workforce management personnel in the banking sector. This is due to the significance of highly motivated and satisfied employees to the overall output of an organization. Employee engagement and organizational commitment are amid the most analyzed indicators of good organizational performance. Although there has been numerous and diverse studies on the effects and significance of engagement and commitment of employees on organizational performance, there exists unanswered questions in various dimension on the contribution of these facets to performance of organizations (Walumbwa et al, 2005). Cho and Park (2011) investigated trust as key factor influencing employee commitment in an organization as well as job satisfaction. In the research, the authors focused on trust on as a key mediating factor in the relationship between employee satisfaction and job commitment. The area of trust and its significance in organizations has been reviewed extensively. Trust is believed to be a main determiner in the work attitudes of an employee and consequently influence the organizational performance. Trust among work groups and individuals in organizations is also believed to enhance job performance, commitment and engagement in ones work.
Yalabik et al (2015) conducted a study on the connection between engagement and commitment of employees in professional service firms (PSF). These firms compete based on their capability to motivate their workforce to offer the most appropriate skill based services to their customers. For this purpose, the PSFs have to ensure that their workforce is fully engaged and committed. In order to establish the findings, the study conducted 325 surveys on workers from international PSFs. The study established that there exists a strong link between work engagement and job commitment. Work engagement was revealed to be positively skewed to job commitment. The study results are consistent with the broaden-and-build theory which stipulates that positive actions and emotions lead to other constructive emotions and actions. This hence implies that work engagement leads to high degree of job commitment which results to increased organizational performance. Malhotra and Mukherjee (2004) in a study postulate that vigor and dedication which are components of engagement, exhibit positive correlation with organizational commitment. The study indicates that employees who are endowed with a high degree of vigor in their work such as high energy levels, perseverance, and resilience are more committed to their job tasks. Dedication which is a factor of engagement and involves identification with ones task, job involvement, enthusiasm and a feeling of pride, was found to be positively correlated with organizational commitment.
Klein, Molloy and Brinsfield (2012) established that focus on employee work engagement and commitment can lead to improved job performance and overall increase in the organizations’ output size and quality. The study argued that organizations need to implement factors that can facilitate work engagement and commitment in employees. The study further investigated on components of work engagement and their relationship to commitment. It established that components of vigor and dedication are the major predictors of work commitment in organizations. Engagement was found to influence high level of commitment among teams than individuals. The study therefore urges organizations to organize their functions in teams for increased job commitment and deeper employee engagement. Saks (2006) indicates that team work enables employees to interact with their counterparts on daily basis hence making their daily tasks easier and building up their job morale. There is usually a tendency of strong commitment in teamwork rather an individual due to the pressure from within the team not to let other down. This consequently leads to increased organizational performance.
Drivers of Employee Commitment and Engagement
In their study Crossman and Abou-Zaki (2003) established that banks striving at boosting the level of commitment and engagement among their employees should carefully consider strengthening different facets of organizational culture and communication. The study established that organizational culture have considerable impact in the level of employee engagement encompassing absorption, vigour as well as job dedication. Although the study was centralized on Indian banks and did not include results from cross-border banks, the results of the study are insightful since the global banking sector is complementary and has identical approach in almost all job activities. Lockwood (2007) indicates that the culture in an organization influences the employees’ autonomy and influences the extent of liberty and authority provided to employees. It plays a considerable role ensuring that the employees feel significant and valued by the organization. This hence leads to commitment and dedication towards their work. The author further indicates that organizations should enhance inter-department collaboration where different departments in the organization cooperate in achieving a common goal. This enhances the workers’ sense of security and belongingness in the organization. The study established that organizational culture was major factor affecting the level of employees’ engagement in their work.
Leroy, Palanski and Simons (2012) in their study highlighted that organizational policies, goals and objectives are key determinants of employee commitment and engagement in their work. The author defined organizational policies as specific aspects of job environment that impact on the workers’ job performance and their work relationships. The policies of an organization serve as guidance for managers and supervisors in decision making and predetermine the job experience of the workers influencing their behaviours, job attitudes and sense of security. For example, an organization whose policy centralizes on high productivity has got a high likelihood to reward its workers based on their job performance. Connectively, the supervisors and the managers will modify their style of decision making towards maximizing productivity and will constantly communicate this to their subordinates. Such policy shapes the behaviour of the workers since it serves as a constant reminder of what is expected of them by the organization. The study established that organizational policies have the ability to influence the level of employee commitment and engagement in an organization. Hom et al (2012) indicates that some organizational policies have a negative effect on employee behaviours.
Hom et al (2012) indicated that age was key determining factor in employee commitment and engagement in an organization. The study indicated that young employees have high job turnover characterized by less job commitment as well as job engagement. The study established that the average period a young worker would stay in an organization was two years after which they quit for more promising career opportunities. Kaldenberg, Becker and Zvonkovic (1995) indicates that the intention young workers to leave is due to declining levels job commitment and feeling less engaged to allocated job obligations. This category of employees is usually less loyal to the organization and is always looking for better opportunities elsewhere. Conversely, the study indicates that middle aged and older people in organizations have low intention to leave and depict high level of organizational job commitment and engagement. The study recommends for organizations to create a working environment where employees feel valued, appreciated as well as provision of career development opportunities in order to achieve high level engagement and commitment. The main weakness of the study however was lack of empirical evidence to the acclaimed propositions.
Hussain et al (2013) investigated on the effect intention of leave job on employee engagement. The study was carried out in keen interest on young Malaysian bankers. The study established that employee intention to leave their current jobs had a negative correlation to job engagement. The study however established that intention to quit job has less contribution to the job engagement level of young employees in Malaysian banks who exhibit different job characteristics than the rest of the workforce. The main weakness of the study is geographical area constrain where the research was focused in specific geographic region. Hom et al (2012) in their study however affirms the results indicating that there exists a mismatch the job culture of young bankers in relation to job prerequisites in commercial banks. This situation hence adds in the intention to leave among young employee in the banking sector. The study further establishes that young bankers spot many analogous job opportunities hence decreasing their job engagement in their current work stations. The authors indicate that young workers specifically classified in generation Y desire to work in organizations that allow them to perform their work with utmost autonomy.
Bal, Kooij and De Jong (2013) in their study established insignificant contribution of gender to employee commitment and engagement in organizations. Previous literature presents mixed results regarding the effects of gender in commitment and engagement of the workforce. Some established differences in the satisfaction levels between male and females. Brunetto et al (2012) examined the impacts of gender or organizational commitment and engagement among employees. The research was inclusive of gender based models as well as job models. The job models involve conceptualization of difference between genders in relation to different job attributes such as job independence and reward system. On the other hand, gender based models focus on social connections, family connections and mismatch in market-labour opportunities. The results as per the models revealed that men are more likely to stay in jobs and exhibit features of commitment in job than women. Additionally, the study revealed little effect of social connection factors such as family ties with organizational commitment between male and female employees. However, the study established that women tend to show greater level of job commitment than men when social variables have been managed. The conclusion of the study was that there exists little significance of gender effects to organizational commitment.
The reviewed literature clearly establishes the significance of employee engagement and commitment in organizations. Insightful information on the study subject has been established. Although there exists plenty of literature and numerous previous studies on employee engagement and commitment, there is no identifiable previous research which explicitly covers employee commitment and engagement in Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC). The review of literature has established how previous researchers have approached the same topic in their diverse researches as well as their results. It is visible that employee engagement and commitment is abroad topic which leaves a room further study.
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