Oct 02, 2017 term paper 2

Discuss whether the production of genetically modified food should be encouraged.

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Genetically Modified Food.

Question:

Discuss whether the production of genetically modified food should be encouraged

Answer:

Introduction and scope of the present report

Genetically modified food (GMF), are the food produced from organism containing modified genetic content by virtue of employing genetic engineering methods. These methods are crucial and beneficial as they help in introducing newer traits and helps in controlling the net productivity of these. The advantage of encouraging the production and usage of genetically modified food also lies in context of greater control over the genetic structure of the food compared the one produced by other techniques such as mutation breeding and selective breeding. The concept of GMF was brought into the application of humanity in 1994, when it was used to delay the ripening of tomato with the name of Flavr Savr. With the advantageous application, the concept was further used for the introduction of various foods especially the cash crops, which are high demand in the market like corn, cotton, canola, soyabean and seed oil. The demand for the GMF also increase with the benefit of natural resistance against the pathogenic strains, herbicides as well as have the advantage of high yield.

On the contrary, the use and wide application of GMF is also restricted with various controversial scientific facts and ill effects over the ecological system. The information not only produces the controversy regarding the genetic structure of the modified food, but also produces greater risk for the conventional foods. The concern is also raised over the issues of toxicity and allergic factors, which have the potential to causes, harm the humankind as well. Owing to these concepts, the present report is designed with the objective to present argumentative essay. It is hence relevant literature has been explored for framing the present report. Furthermore, the views and ideology present by various authors are thereby analyses and crosschecked with other similar literature. This not only helps in elucidation of the information, but also helped in excluding the false positive information.

Are modified genetic content accepted owing to its benefits

The prime notation about GMF is the incorporation of DNA or protein in every food. Thus the argument can be framed in conjunction to the mechanism by which the concept of genetic engineering is fruitful and worthy. The said reference can be obtained in conjunction to the papaya, which was facing drastic risk and low yield in the late 1990s, and situation was brought in favor with the incorporation of F1 hybrid species. For certain specific food production, the genetic part, which was responsible for providing favorable condition to pathogenic strains such as for increasing yield of potato, was then made into utilization.It is important for the part of the research and development group that are engaged in the production of these food, to identify and check any possible harm associated to with respect to the toxicity and allergic content. It is hence after all the development, such products are necessary to undergo the approval for the concerned council and governing bodies. Possible example of modified nucleic acid or incorporated protein, that are potent to produce more favorable yield, reduce the production of harmful natural chemicals that make the products rotten easily and provide resistance against the pathogenic strains are there in literature. Example of these foods are corn flour, tomatoes, cantalopes and various soya products (milled, textured and concentrates).

Considering the statistics of 2000, these foods were acceptable in the markets of US, Argentina, China and Canada. The acceptability criteria is mainly because of modified characteristics related increased resistance to herbicides, faster yield of the products, lasting perishable traits and drought tolerance characteristics. Disease resistance is the more favorable trait that helps the crops from getting infected with pathogens such as virus, fungi and bacteria. Other than this, the benefit is also associated with cold and drought resistance, which removes the worries, related to destroying sensitive seedlings and reduced yield. These problems related to reduction in yield by virtue of soil erosion and reduction in nutrient in soil can also be reduced with the help of genetically engineered crops. The advantageous effects has been evidenced with respect to rice production that not only produce high yield but also are also higher in terms of vitamin A (beta-carotene) in the yield. Notable the food products can be obtained from not only modified crops but are also obtained using the animals that contain modified genetic material. Example of these products constitutes, dairy products and milk.

What are the associated toxicity and allergic factors

Allergenicity is the prime concern in conjunction to the usage of GMF. Some of the examples can be obtained from the statistics of US and Europe where the children are prone to life-threatening consequences owing to the consumption of genetically modified peanuts. The reason associated with the consequence, is related to the production of allergens and other agents with the incorporation of genetic material and protein into the food products. Furthermore, it is these allergenic or prone agents, which have the potential to induce allergic or hypersensitivity reactions in the individuals. The possible sources of avoiding such threats to health is the adequate testing of food products for all possible illustrations of the harmful and deleterious effects. Likewise, there are certain reported evidences where the genetically modified foods are found to cause deleterious effects over the digestive tract and other functional organs in tested animal models. Example can be obtained with respect to the GMF potato, which are reported to cause digestive tract related disorder in rats Apart from these notations, there are views from the expert, that the concern is not life threatening and possess risk to human health.

Legislative reforms in conjunction to GMF

Regulation owing to the use and development of genetically modified foods is important as it helps in controlling the usage cum application of the concept as well as ensure that the products being used in the market are free from any ill health effects. These restrictions are imposed over the usage of genetically modified crops and organism. It should be noted that the legislative reforms and regulation are diverse, considering the geographical location. The regulation of the usage and development is also depended based on the economic value in market as well as the intention of usage. Considering the scenario in United States, the usage and regulation of the GMF required a prior approval from the FDA, which controls the production upto a threshold value and that too with rigorous studies. In addition, the labeling of GMO is essential for the marketing and market distribution of the food products. Considering the scenario of present condition the labeling of the GMO is required and made essential in more than 70 countries according to international food safety authority.

Controversies existing with the usage of GMF

As discussed in the above context, the possible controversy of the usage for GMF is related to health risks in conjunction to allergy and other undesirable health consequences. Other hazards include the reduced effectiveness of pesticides, harmful effect over other organisms and transfer of the genetic constituents to the non-targeted organisms. Popular examples can be obtained with the development of super weeds by virtue of gene transfer from the pollination and herbicide effect. The transfer of gene is also found in case of moths and insects, upon feeding over the GMF as food source. It is hence the plantation as well as the insect proliferation is also found to be disturbed by virtue of the usage of GMF. These concerns are not only related to the environmental hazards but is also concerned with the disturbance to the ecological balance. Other than this the challenge is also linked with the alteration in the modified foods with respect to the genetic constitutes. It is hence the danger also lies with respect to the complete eradication of the natural food substance.

Conclusion

In conclusion it can be said that the present report discuss and illustrates the concept of genetically modified food in conjunction to the concept of genetic engineering and incorporation of the DNA and protein content.

Talking about the advantageous prospects, it is linked with increase in yield, resistance to pathogenic strains and favorable in avoiding or omitting the undesirable perishable traits. On the contrary, the restriction of usage is imposed due to allergic consequence and hazards to the environmental balance. It is hence the restriction is being regulated with various agencies and authorities in different countries. In concern to the views of many expert it was found that the use of genetic engineering is inevitable with respect to the technological advancement to meet the increased demand of the population explorer. However, it is safe to move with the environmental and individual health concern, which could prove to be worthy for future state.

References

 Domingo, José L., and Jordi Giné Bordonaba. "A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants." Environment International 37, no. 4 (2011): 734-742.

Séralini, Gilles-Eric, Robin Mesnage, Emilie Clair, Steeve Gress, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois, and Dominique Cellier. "Genetically modified crops safety assessments: present limits and possible improvements." Environmental Sciences Europe 23, no. 1 (2011): 1-10.

 Diels, Johan, Mario Cunha, Célia Manaia, Bernardo Sabugosa-Madeira, and Margarida Silva. "Association of financial or professional conflict of interest to research outcomes on health risks or nutritional assessment studies of genetically modified products." Food Policy 36, no. 2 (2011): 197-203.

Ramsey, Janine M., J. Guillermo Bond, Maria Elena Macotela, Luca Facchinelli, Laura Valerio, David M. Brown, Thomas W. Scott, and Anthony A. James. "A Regulatory Structure for Working with Genetically Modified Mosquitoes: Lessons from Mexico." PLoS neglected tropical diseases 8, no. 3 (2014): e2623.

Hilbeck, Angelika, Matthias Meier, Jörg Römbke, Stephan Jänsch, Hanka Teichmann, and Beatrix Tappeser. "Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants-concepts and controversies." Environmental Sciences Europe 23, no. 1 (2011): 1-12.


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