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Discuss about the Report for A Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition for Pennsylvania?

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A Protein And Amino Acid Nutrition: Pennsylvania

Question:

Discuss about the Report for A Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition for Pennsylvania?

Answer:

Introduction

What is Whey Protein?

The whey is a liquid by-product left after the cheese production highly consist of whey protein that is a mixture of globular proteins containing branched chain amino acids as its ingredient. This whey protein is used as the dietary supplement to overcome the muscle loss due to ageing and increase the body strength. The whey protein decreases the risk of cancer, diabetes and chronic diseases.

The strength and weakness of any protein depend on its essential amino acid composition. The amino acid score of different protein sources or different common proteins that are whey protein, egg, casein, soy protein, beef protein and wheat gluten.

The below-provided chart and graph demonstrate a quality comparison between these common protein sources.

Amino Acid (mgAA/gram)

Egg protein

Soy protein

Beef protein

Whey protein

Wheat Gluten

Casein protein

Histidine

22

19

34

16

66

30

Valine

66

48

50

82

56

57

Isoleucine

54

49

48

54

45

46

Leucine

86

82

83

89

77

91

Lysine

70

64

89

88

48

77

Methionine

57

26

40

32

54

29

Phenylalanine

93

92

80

65

63

50

Tryptophan

17

14

12

22

11

12

Threonine

47

38

46

65

36

43

Total

512

432

482

513

456

435


Table 1: The AA score of different common protein sources

The graph provided below shows a comparison between the amino acid count of all these common protein sources. The study of quality comparison indicates that whey protein consists maximum amino acid count when compared to other common sources of protein.

The comparison on EAA score of different protein source

Graph 1: The comparison on EAA score of different protein source

Aging loss muscle/muscle strength

The essential amino acids (EAA) enhances the muscle protein anabolism that increases the muscular strength. The composition of whey protein consist of maximum EAA composition that muscle protein synthesis and minimizes the breakdown of protein leading to increase in muscle strength.

The lack of optimal diet and low level of protein in the body leads to aging loss of muscle or loss of physical strength that depletes the ability to perform routine functions. This aging muscle loss is named as Sarcopenia, where lack of protein in diet plays a major role in enhancing the disease. The whey protein is one of the most effective dietary supplement that controls sarcopenia.

The below-provided graph provides the protein intake amount for different age groups.

The daily total protein intake of different age groups

Graph 2: The daily total protein intake of different age groups

Resistance training

The resistance training is a category of physical activity or exercise that initiates muscular contraction in the body against any external stimuli or resistance leading to increase in strength of the body. Some of the most popular resistance training are Olympic lifting, power lifting and weight lifting to get strong toned muscular endurance.

Resistance training leads to stress on muscle cells creating the breakdown of muscle fibres called as “catabolism” and the body components work on these muscle tissue to initiate repair called as “anabolism” in muscle cells. This is the basic biological concept of increasing muscle strength by resistance training. 

Physiology

Ingredients of whey protein

The whey protein is a mixture of globular proteins that basically consist mixture of

Beta-lactoglobulin (approx. 65%)

Alpha-lactalbumin (approx. 25%)

Bovine serum albumin (approx. 8%)

Immunoglobulins (approx. 10%)

The most common essential amino acids that are found a high amount of ingredients in whey proteins are Arginine, Glycine, Lysine, Threonine, Phenylalanine and Proline.

Benefits of whey protein

Osteoporosis

The whey consists a protein named as “lactoferrin” that enables bone growth in the body. Researches from ancient times indicate that lactoferrin found in whey milk supports bone growth to have a control over Osteoporosis, a condition where bones become  fragile and brittle due to deficiency of calcium or vitamin D. The lactoferrin supports bone growth to control osteoporosis.

Burning body fat

It is been scientifically proven that whey protein shows exceptional performance in controlling body fat because this protein consists leucine that protein synthesis that helps to burn calories as well as leucine stimulates fatty acid oxidation leading to lose of body fat. The whey protein is also good supplement to have a controlled appetite because this protein lets stomach filled for the long duration of time.

Increase muscle strength

The whey protein initiates increase in muscle strength by enhancing muscular growth especially the fast-twitch muscle fibres that increasing the strength of muscles. This protein is highly functional when consumed with resistance exercises to increase body strength.

During RT Exercise

The amino acids induce muscle protein anabolism at the time of acute exposure to RT exercises. The human skeletal muscle undergoes a breakdown at time of resistance training and to overcome this breakdown the amino acids in body initiates translational regulation leading to protein synthesis as well as lean mass growth.

After RT Exercise

Even after the RT exercises, these amino acids initiates protein synthesis to have a control over muscle breakdown. It is also observed that diminishing amino acid supplementation effect occurs over a long period exposure stimulus after RT exercise.

Conclusion

The whey protein intake to increase the level of EAA in body initiates muscle hypertrophy at periods of resistance training leading to growth in the size of muscle cells and increased muscular glycogen storage with increased myofibril size of muscle cells. The daily protein intake for average male should be 56-91 grams and for female it should be 46-75 grams for the healthy life long muscular activity in the body.

Whey protein is considered as modern day protein source used as a protein component in synthetic food. The benefits of whey protein to control osteoporosis reduce body fat and working to increase muscle strength makes it an essential food material. The combination of RT Exercise and whey protein intake tremendously increases the muscular strength and fulfils the requirement of essential amino acids in the body. Whey protein is a good source of Arginine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Threonine, Lysine and Glycine. This mixture of globular protein created as a by-product of cheese production compromises effective health benefits. Hence, Scientific evidence supports the benefits of the whey protein as good source of EAA (essential amino acids) and BCAA (branched chain amino acids) in all forms.

References List

Books

Albanese, A. Protein and amino acid nutrition. Pennsylvania(US): Elsevier; 2012. 616 p.

Journals

Hulmi, JJ, Lockwood, CM., & Stout, JR. (2010). Effect of protein/essential amino acids and resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy: A case for whey protein. Nutrition & metabolism. 2010; 7(1): 1- 10.

Kim, JS, Wilson, JM, & Lee, SR. Dietary implications on mechanisms of sarcopenia: roles of protein, amino acids and antioxidants. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 2010; 21(1): 1-13.

Website

Roosevelt M. Fitness Supplements: When the Gym Isn’t Enough. Nytimes.com; 2010 Jan 13 [cited 2016 Feb 24]. Available from https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/14/health/nutrition/14fitness.html?r=0


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