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Consider the case of a woman who is robbed and beaten

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45.Consider the case of a woman who is robbed and beaten. The robber

escapes punishment. Socrates would say the robber has been most hurt by

this crime.

A. True

B. False

46. Socrates illustrates his ideas about the ethical life and the unethical life with

the image of two wine jars.

A. True

B. False

47. In the Platonic dialogue entitled the Gorgiras, the character Callicles argues

that best life is one of the uncontrolled and totally self-interested pursuit of

pleasure.

A. True

B. False

48. Plato believes that in the unhealthy soul there is an inappropriate balance

among the three parts.

A. True

B. False

49. Thales believes that the basic nature of all things, the first principle of reality,

is ________.

A. Time

B. Our sense of self

C. Our bodies

D. WaterFinal Examination9Introduction to Philosophy

50. Anaximander’s first principle of reality is the Unlimited.

A. True

B. False

51. Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes and other thinkers such as Heraclitus and

Parmenides are known as Post-Socratics

A. True

B. False

52. Plato explains the divided line theory with the allegory of a cave

A. True

B. False

53. Berkeley maintains that object no not exist apart from being perceived.

A. True

B. False

54. Berkeley claims that God constantly perceives reality, and thus gives it ulti-

mate existence.

A. True

B. False

55. An Anthropomorphic account of reality explains things by appealing to cul-

tural terms.

A. True

B. False

56. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as empiricism claims that

knowledge comes from, or arises in, our minds.

A. True

B. False10Final ExaminationIntroduction to Philosophy

57. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as rationalism claims that

knowledge comes from sensory experiences.

A. True

B. False

58. Hume thinks that to the extent that knowledge is possible, it ultimately

depends on___________.

A. The senses

B. The mind

C. The soul

D. Our logic

59. Hume uses the example of a billiard ball hitting another to question the

concept of causality.

A. True

B. False

60. Gilbert Ryle uses the term ___________ to describe an error in logical catego-

ries, otherwise known as “comparing apples to oranges.”

A. Informal

B. Incorrect analogy

C. Category false

D. Category mistake

61. “A triangle has three sides” is an example of an analytic statement.

A. True

B. False

62. Descartes uses the example of a piece of melting wax to claim that the

senses are the only dependable source of knowledge.

A. True

B. FalseFinal Examination11Introduction to Philosophy

63. Kant tried to synthesize the epistemological views of the rationalists and

empiricists.

A. True

B. False

64. An argument from design, claims that the universe is so intelligently crafted

that it must have a creator.

A. True

B. False

65. The problem of evil is taken up in the Bible in the book of job.

A. True

B. False

66. Aquinas defines _________ as potentialities becoming actualized.

A. Our morals

B. Our actions

C. Motion

D. Our sense of self

67. An onotological argument concerning God’s existence claims that by merely

contemplating the notion of God as “that-than-which-nothing-greater-can-

be-thought,” we become aware that God must exist.

A. True

B. False

68. David Hume claims the fear is the basis of religion, that people “accept reli-

gion on emotional grounds.”

A. True

B. False12Final ExaminationIntroduction to Philosophy

69. David Hume dismisses such arguments about God’s existence from causality

with the claim that the material universe itself might be a necessarily existent

being, which means there is no need for a “first cause.”

A. True

B. False

70. Anselm’s discussion of the possibility of God’s existence relies on empirical

evidence alone.

A. True

B. False

71. Anselm’s argument is essentially Aristotelian because it believes that the

question of God’s existence can be settled by studying the workings of nature.

A. True

B. False

72. Hegel’s label for the dynamic and conflict-filled process that dominates real-

ity is dialectic, the three elements of which are thesis, antithesis, synthesis.

A. True

B. False

73. Marx calls the type of work that characterizes capitalism_____________.

A. Punishment

B. Forced labor

C. Unethical

D. Alienated labor

74. Karma is an essentially deterministic principle which is, paradoxically, based

on the idea of individual free choice.

A. True

B. FalseFinal Examination13Introduction to Philosophy

75. The Supreme Buddha was a prince from fifth century B.C. Nepal who became

a great spiritual leader.

A. True

B. False

76. _______________ is the Buddhist idea that because the task of spiritual de-

velopment is too complex to accomplish in one lifetime, we live many lives.

A. Karma

B. Our destiny

C. Rebirth

D. Free will

77. In Western culture, religion and philosophy thoroughly intermix, and in the

East, they do just the same.

A. True

B. False

78. The Buddhist conception of the self is the source of the way the self is under-

stood in Western philosophy.

A. True

B. False

79. Modern natural science has a close relationship to the school of philosophy

called Empiricism.

A. True

B. False

80. According to Einstein, _________ will be perceived the same whether the

observer is moving or not.

A. Space-time continuum

B. String theory

C. The speed of light

D. Theory of Relativity14Final ExaminationIntroduction to Philosophy

81. Einstein’s theory about the ______implies that reality has four dimensions,

not three.

A. Space-time continuum

B. String theory

C. The speed of light

D. Theory of Relativity

82. _______________is based on the claim that the ultimate building blocks of

reality aren’t subatomic particles, but even smaller vibrating one-dimensional

strings of energy.

A. Space-time continuum

B. String theory

C. The speed of light

D. Theory of Relativity

83. The world of subatomic particles spawned a separate branch of physics called

quantum mechanics.

A. True

B. False

84. Imagine two twins. One gets onto a space ship and travels close to the speed

of light for what the ship’s clocks record as a few months. The other twin re-

mains on earth. When the space ship returns, there will be no difference in

their ages.

A. True

B. False

85. Imagine that you are standing still, while a friend of yours is on a train head-

ing north. You see two lightning bolts strike the ground at the same instant

– one to the north and the other to the south. Einstein would say that your

friend on the train experiences things differently, seeing the northern bolt

strike before the southern bolt.

A. True

B. FalseFinal Examination15Introduction to Philosophy

86. Unlike Newton, Einstein believes that space is constant and absolute and

cannot “bend.”

A. True

B. False

87. The main psychological research on epistemological differences between

men and women focuses on different developmental stages that we go

through in progressing from a simple to a mature understanding of the con-

cept of _____________.

A. Truth

B. Self-actualization

C. Understanding

D. Knowledge

88. In ______________ “conventional” morality, including stages three and four,

we understand right and wrong in terms of laws and the expectations of

others.

A. Kohlberg’s

B. Perry’s

C. Belenky’s

D. Gilligan’s

89. If we are at Perry’s second stage, “unacceptable multiplicity,” and we hear

two opposite accounts of the causes of the Reformation, we would probably

think that one, but only one, of the two accounts is true.

A. True

B. False

90. In Belenky’s first stage, “____________,” knowledge is what some external

authority says it is.

A. Constructed knowledge

B. Received knowledge

C. Subjective knowledge

D. Procedural knowledge16Final ExaminationIntroduction to Philosophy

91. In Belenky’s final stage, “_______________,” believing is more important than

doubting.

A. Constructed knowledge

B. Received knowledge

C. Subjective knowledge

D. Procedural knowledge

92. If we combine the two perspectives represented by Kohlberg and Gilligan,

the problem of the moral justification of an action becomes more difficult

and involved.

A. True

B. False

93. Sex refers to societal roles, whereas gender refers to biology.

A. True

B. False

94. “Human” and “person” are different, but related, ideas. “Human” is a bio-

logical concept, while “person” is a _____________ concept.

A. Theological

B. Philosophical

C. Scientific

D. Emotional

95. Dolphins’ curiosity about humans can be traced back at least to ancient

__________.

A. Rome

B. China

C. Greece

D. None of the above

96. The one dolphin sense that acts as both their eyes and ears in the water is

like the modern human sonar system onboard submarines.

A. True

B. FalseFinal Examination17Introduction to Philosophy

97. Dolphins have a body temperature of _________ degrees.

A. 98.6

B. 96.8

C. 90.2

D. 92.2

98. As far as the criteria for “personhood” are concerned, dolphins probably do

possess “awareness” because the fact that they can be so easily trained

shows that they are aware of the external world and able to interact with it.

A. True

B. False

99. The fact that dolphins can perform leaps, dives and flips on cue from train-

ers: prove that dolphins are not intelligent enough to be persons, because

persons would not perform such menial behaviors.

A. True

B. False

100. In terms of the criteria for personhood developed in this chapter, dolphins,

on balance, did pretty well.

A. True

B. False


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