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the case of a woman who is robbed and beaten. The robber
punishment. Socrates would say the robber has been most hurt by
Socrates illustrates his ideas about the ethical life and the unethical life
of two wine jars.
the Platonic dialogue entitled the Gorgiras, the character Callicles argues
life is one of the uncontrolled and totally self-interested pursuit of
believes that in the unhealthy soul there is an inappropriate balance
Thales believes that the basic nature of all things, the first principle of
sense of self
50. Anaximanderâ€™s first principle of reality is the
Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes and other thinkers such as Heraclitus and
are known as Post-Socratics
explains the divided line theory with the allegory of a cave
Berkeley maintains that object no not exist apart from being perceived.
Berkeley claims that God constantly perceives reality, and thus gives it ulti-
Anthropomorphic account of reality explains things by appealing to cul-
philosophical approach to knowledge known as empiricism claims that
comes from, or arises in, our minds.
B. False10Final ExaminationIntroduction to
57. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as
rationalism claims that
comes from sensory experiences.
thinks that to the extent that knowledge is possible, it ultimately
uses the example of a billiard ball hitting another to question the
Gilbert Ryle uses the term ___________ to describe an error in logical catego-
otherwise known as â€œcomparing apples to oranges.â€
triangle has three sidesâ€ is an example of an analytic statement.
Descartes uses the example of a piece of melting wax to claim that the
are the only dependable source of knowledge.
63. Kant tried to synthesize the epistemological views
of the rationalists and
argument from design, claims that the universe is so intelligently crafted
must have a creator.
problem of evil is taken up in the Bible in the book of job.
Aquinas defines _________ as potentialities becoming actualized.
sense of self
onotological argument concerning Godâ€™s existence claims that by merely
the notion of God as â€œthat-than-which-nothing-greater-can-
we become aware that God must exist.
Hume claims the fear is the basis of religion, that people â€œaccept reli-
gion on emotional
B. False12Final ExaminationIntroduction to
69. David Hume dismisses such arguments about Godâ€™s
existence from causality
claim that the material universe itself might be a necessarily existent
which means there is no need for a â€œfirst cause.â€
Anselmâ€™s discussion of the possibility of Godâ€™s existence relies on empirical
Anselmâ€™s argument is essentially Aristotelian because it believes that the
of Godâ€™s existence can be settled by studying the workings of nature.
Hegelâ€™s label for the dynamic and conflict-filled process that dominates real-
dialectic, the three elements of which are thesis, antithesis, synthesis.
calls the type of work that characterizes capitalism_____________.
is an essentially deterministic principle which is, paradoxically, based
idea of individual free choice.
75. The Supreme Buddha was a prince from fifth century
B.C. Nepal who became
_______________ is the Buddhist idea that because the task of spiritual de-
is too complex to accomplish in one lifetime, we live many lives.
Western culture, religion and philosophy thoroughly intermix, and in the
they do just the same.
Buddhist conception of the self is the source of the way the self is under-
Modern natural science has a close relationship to the school of philosophy
According to Einstein, _________ will be perceived the same whether the
is moving or not.
speed of light
of Relativity14Final ExaminationIntroduction to Philosophy
81. Einsteinâ€™s theory about the ______implies that
reality has four dimensions,
speed of light
_______________is based on the claim that the ultimate building blocks of
arenâ€™t subatomic particles, but even smaller vibrating one-dimensional
speed of light
world of subatomic particles spawned a separate branch of physics called
Imagine two twins. One gets onto a space ship and travels close to the speed
for what the shipâ€™s clocks record as a few months. The other twin re-
earth. When the space ship returns, there will be no difference in
Imagine that you are standing still, while a friend of yours is on a train
north. You see two lightning bolts strike the ground at the same instant
â€“ one to
the north and the other to the south. Einstein would say that your
the train experiences things differently, seeing the northern bolt
before the southern bolt.
86. Unlike Newton, Einstein believes that space is
constant and absolute and
main psychological research on epistemological differences between
women focuses on different developmental stages that we go
in progressing from a simple to a mature understanding of the con-
______________ â€œconventionalâ€ morality, including stages three and four,
understand right and wrong in terms of laws and the expectations of
89. If we
are at Perryâ€™s second stage, â€œunacceptable multiplicity,â€ and we hear
opposite accounts of the causes of the Reformation, we would probably
that one, but only one, of the two accounts is true.
Belenkyâ€™s first stage, â€œ____________,â€ knowledge is what some external
says it is.
ExaminationIntroduction to Philosophy
91. In Belenkyâ€™s final stage, â€œ_______________,â€
believing is more important than
92. If we
combine the two perspectives represented by Kohlberg and Gilligan,
problem of the moral justification of an action becomes more difficult
refers to societal roles, whereas gender refers to biology.
â€œHumanâ€ and â€œpersonâ€ are different, but related, ideas. â€œHumanâ€ is a bio-
concept, while â€œpersonâ€ is a _____________ concept.
curiosity about humans can be traced back at least to ancient
of the above
one dolphin sense that acts as both their eyes and ears in the water is
modern human sonar system onboard submarines.
97. Dolphins have a body temperature of _________
far as the criteria for â€œpersonhoodâ€ are concerned, dolphins probably do
because the fact that they can be so easily trained
that they are aware of the external world and able to interact with it.
fact that dolphins can perform leaps, dives and flips on cue from train-
prove that dolphins are not intelligent enough to be persons, because
would not perform such menial behaviors.
terms of the criteria for personhood developed in this chapter, dolphins,
balance, did pretty well.