Jan 13, 2018

Clear statement of the author’s thesis or central argument. Why was the article written? For whom was the article written?

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Article Review

three pages of article review

This all details:

must follow this steps please:

1. Clear statement of the author’s thesis or central argument. Why was the article written? For whom was the article written?

2. Assessment of whether the author succeeded in achieving the purpose of the article.Further detail on how the article could have been improved.

3. Identify the major strengths and weaknesses of the article. Separate listing for each with detailed explanation.

4. Relate your article to the topic of finance in higher education. Explain how the article directly applies to finance throughout the entire paper.

An article review is a critical commentary, which summarizes the contents of the article. Your review should include the key points in the article and how they apply to higher education. It should go without saying, but the following guidelines should be followed (Modified APA style):

1. Papers should be typewritten (Times New Roman 12 pt. font) and double-spaced; no less than 3 pages in length (1 inch margins, left, right, top, and bottom)

2. Rules of spelling, grammar, and composition will be closely.

3. Papers should be proofread (not just spell checked and grammar checked) before they are submitted to the professor.

4. Unless otherwise stated, it is assumed that the opinion that you are expressing is your own. Therefore there is no need to write, “In my opinion” or “I believe”. (Interact with the author: “George failed to support…”)

5. Try to use action verbs whenever possible: avoid passive voice. (I.e. not “The author was trying to convey.” Use: “The attempt to convey.” –Passive voice is usually indicated by the use of “being verbs” …I was being, I will be—don’t use them)

6. Don’t use slang or colloquialisms unless you have a specific reason for doing so. (I.e. “His metaphor seemed to have him barking up the wrong tree.


Education for All? 2-Year Colleges
Struggle to Preserve Their Mission. (Cover story)

The open-door policy
at community colleges is unique in American higher education. It allows all comers–a retired grandmother,
an Army veteran, a laid-off machinist–to learn a skill or get a credential.
That broad access–the bedrock of the community-college system–has prepared
hundreds of millions of people for transfer to four-year colleges or entry into
the work force.

But these days, the
sector finds itself in a fight to save that signature trademark. As budgets
dwindle and the pressure to graduate more students grows, community-college
educators from instructors to presidents worry about the future. Less state and
local money is making its way to college coffers, prompting painful choices.
And the clarion call for the sector to produce more graduates, part of a
nationwide effort to boost education levels,
has forced colleges to use scarce resources for degree programs rather than for
remedial courses.

The focus now is on
the best-prepared students, and not on those who may never graduate. Community
colleges foresee a day when access to all is no longer the norm but the

colleges are being hammered to increase graduation rates,” says Gary D.
Rhoades, a professor of higher education at the University of Arizona, who also
works with the Center for the Future of Higher Education, a research group. “One way to do that
is to change the sort of student you serve.” Such a shift would profoundly
affect the millions of low-income and minority students who look to attend
community colleges every year, many of whom need remedial educationfirst.

In a report in
February, the American Association of Community Colleges sounded the alarm on
how the national completion agenda is starting to affect community colleges.
“In policy conversations,” it said, “there is a silent movement
to redirect educational opportunity to those students deemed ‘deserving.’

That is an
uncomfortable thought for a sector that prides itself on being all things to
all people all the time: offering English-language classes for immigrants and
enrichment programs for senior citizens. But early evidence suggests that some
community colleges are already making judgment calls about whom they educate,
and how.

Many of those
decisions center on remedial education, long an
obstacle to improving graduation rates. Academically unprepared students are
usually required to enroll in a sequence of remedial courses to get ready for
college-level work. More than 60 percent of students at two-year colleges are
steered into developmentaleducation, according
to the Community College Research Center at Columbia University’s Teachers
College. Because a considerable number of students place into the bottom rung
of those courses, it tends to take them a year or more to complete the
sequence. Many fail, or do not progress, and just drop out.

Labeling low-level
remedial courses a “dead end” has become some administrators’
rationale for eliminating them.

As priorities shift,
remedial students are not the only targets. College officials say they feel
pressure to scale back or cut other programs that don’t lead directly to
certificates or associate degrees. Among those are English as a second language
and general-equivalency diploma courses. For those services, colleges are
redirecting students to other providers: public schools, libraries, nonprofits,
and local government agencies.

Such changes are
difficult, but as budgets shrink and pressure grows–along with
enrollment–they may be inevitable. Yet such new policies, some administrators
argue, will compromise the many missions of community colleges.

At the same time,
demographic shifts are likely to result in more community-collegegoers. Right
now, nearly half of all minority undergraduates attend a community college,
according to their association, and the U.S. Census projects that minority
populations are growing. Many of those future students will probably turn to
community colleges.

They will need an open
door, says Kay M. McClenney, director of the Center for Community College
Student Engagement at the University of Texas at Austin. “The students who
we turn away are the demographic future of America.”

.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.mc.edu:2048/ehost/detail/detail?vid=39&sid=d999bc8f-bfde-42c1-902f-bdee01500f31%40sessionmgr4002&hid=4204&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#toc” title=”OPPORTUNITIES DENIED”>OPPORTUNITIES DENIED

It is already hard to
enroll at some community colleges. More than 400,000 prospective students have
been denied that opportunity because of institutions’ budget-driven moves to
limit academic programs and restrict enrollment.

California is a case
in point. The community-college system there is one of the largest in the
country, with 2.6 million students, or nearly 25 percent of enrollment in the
sector nationwide. And it is facing severe budget cuts: The state has slashed
its appropriations by 13 percent over the last three years. As a result, the
California Community Colleges have had to offer fewer courses, says Jack Scott,
the system’s chancellor.

“We are being
forced to ration enrollment,” Mr. Scott says.

In January a panel
convened by the system to improve students’ success released a set of 22
recommendations, some of which straddle the line between promoting success and
limiting access. One measure will give priority in registering for classes to
students who have taken a placement test, participated in orientation, and
developed an educational plan. All students must identify a program of study
within three semesters, or they will lose that priority, Mr. Scott says.

Those and other
policies will give spots to the most likely graduates. An associate degree
takes 60 credits; students who have accumulated more than 110 credits,
excluding ESL and remedial courses, will find themselves at the end of the
registration line.

“Too many
students are just lingering in the system,” says Mr. Scott. Their seats,
he says, could be occupied by those who are more serious.

But limiting access
isn’t the right way to think of that, Mr. Scott insists. “We are
prioritizing access,” he says.

Community colleges
like those in the California system are in a quandary. Across the country,
two-year colleges face a charge to graduate more students but have little money
to do it.

The Obama
administration put the sector front and center in its plan for all Americans to
obtain at least one year of postsecondary education or
training. Other groups are on board–the National Governors Association, the
Lumina Foundation for Education, Complete
College America–and the recognition of community colleges is on the rise.

But the push comes as
the federal government hasn’t followed through on a promise of more money for
the sector. In 2009 the administration proposed spending $12-billion to rebuild
crumbling facilities, improve remedial education, raise the
number of students who graduate and transfer to four-year colleges, and forge
stronger ties between colleges and employers. But the plan, known as the
American Graduation Initiative, was gutted during negotiations over legislation
to overhaul student-aid programs and the nation’s health-care system. The law
that ultimately passed left community colleges with only $2-billion for a
career-training program administered by the Department of Labor.

President Obama’s
budget proposal for the 2013 fiscal year includes $8-billion for a Community
College to Career Fund, but Congress is unlikely to pass a budget until after
the election in November.

That leaves community
colleges to fend for themselves financially. It probably also means more cuts
in programs and services, more students shut out of classes due to lack of
classroom space, and more tuition and fee increases.

“I know no
reasonable person who thinks that if we just hold our breath through this
recession that the money will roll back in,” says Ms. McClenney, of the
Center for Community College Student Engagement.

She worries about
where students, especially those from vulnerable populations, will go if a
community college can’t give them the help they need. The place she fears most,
she says: “the curb.”

.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.mc.edu:2048/ehost/detail/detail?vid=39&sid=d999bc8f-bfde-42c1-902f-bdee01500f31%40sessionmgr4002&hid=4204&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#toc” title=”REMEDIATING A PROBLEM”>REMEDIATING A PROBLEM

If raising graduation
rates is the goal, remediation is the biggest hurdle. Nationally, two-year
colleges spend more than $2-billion a year helping students improve their
English and mathematics skills, according to Community College Research Center
at Teachers College. Many institutions have little to show for that effort:
Fewer than 25 percent of students who enroll in remedial courses make it to
graduation, the center says.

That has been
considered a waste of time and money–both students’ and colleges’.
Administrators working with limited budgets and fed up with dismal graduation
rates are trying new tactics.

At Jackson Community
College, in Michigan, students who test below a seventh-grade reading level are
referred to remedial programs elsewhere, such as public agencies like South
Central Michigan Works.

Sending students
elsewhere–and cutting their tie to a college–is risky, says Carol Lincoln, a
senior vice president at Achieving the Dream, a nonprofit group dedicated to
increasing college degrees.

“That may be
practical and economically smart,” she says. “But it’s a problem if
that is all we are doing and we don’t create a bridge for those students to
come back to us.

Other colleges are
taking a different approach, beginning with a philosophical shift:
acknowledging that some students just aren’t prepared for the rigors of
college-level work. At Palo Alto College, in San Antonio, administrators have
become more realistic over time, says Ana Margarita Guzman, its president.
“We did everything we could do to help students,” she says, recalling
years past, “but sometimes it still wasn’t enough.”

Now the college is
trying to identify students with good academic potential and redirect others.
Before taking placement tests, students are required to enroll in a free,
two-week, test-preparation course. “Now we have students skipping two or
even three courses,” Ms. Guzman says.

But not every student
does well on the placement test; some have entered the college with very low
academic skills. Palo Alto encourages those students to pursue
work-force-related certificate programs, which don’t require remedial coursework
first–and allow for a quick transition into employment.

The certificate
programs must be tied to an associate degree, administrators decided, because
they hope students will return to the college. “What we have found is that
maturity helps and that success in the workplace builds confidence, which helps
students to succeed when they come back to restart their academic
careers,” Ms. Guzman says.

Such approaches are
recasting the sector’s role in economic terms, to fuel work-force development,
says Mr. Rhoades, of the Center for the Future of HigherEducation. He is skeptical of that, calling it an
unsafe “rebooting” of community colleges.

Concentrating more on
job training, Mr. Rhoades says, and less on, say, providing the general-education courses needed by students planning to
transfer, narrows the sector’s educational purpose.

.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.mc.edu:2048/ehost/detail/detail?vid=39&sid=d999bc8f-bfde-42c1-902f-bdee01500f31%40sessionmgr4002&hid=4204&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#toc” title=”SHIFTING MISSIONS”>SHIFTING MISSIONS

The notion that
community colleges will continue to serve all types of students is starting to
slip away. More institutions these days are focusing on one of two so-called
core missions: training students for the work force with quick certificates or
associate degrees, or preparing them for transfer to higher levels of education.

That leaves less room
for many other missions: to educate English language learners, for example, or
people pursuing a general-equivalency diploma. Even senior citizens are being
squeezed out. At Wor-Wic Community College, in Maryland, “senior
only” classes are no more. Money used for them has been redirected to
support services to help students graduate, says Murray K. Hoy, the college’s

Moves like those
threaten the important local role community colleges have long played. In many
ways, the institutions are the lifeblood of small cities and towns. They have
offered a rich array of resources, including entrepreneurial programs, Zumba
dance classes, arts festivals, and citizenship preparation.

But it’s increasingly
difficult to keep being everything to everybody. Recent changes at San Joaquin
Delta College, in Stockton, Calif., have been agonizing, says Matthew Wetstein,
interim vice president for instruction. The college has seen its share of state
money slashed by roughly 25 percent since 2009. Another reduction of about
$5-million is expected in the next academic year. Those crippling cuts have
forced San Joaquin Delta to perform a “cold, deliberate cost-benefit
analysis,” he says.

As a result, community
music and arts classes, as well as recreational programs for senior citizens,
are no longer available at the college. The general-equivalency-diploma program
is gone, as are the lowest levels of English as a second language. The college
now refers students seeking such services to its continuing-educationdepartment, or to the San Joaquin County
Office of Education.

All this has created a
bit of a furor among faculty who see the moves as rationing access, by focusing
too exclusively on students poised to earn certificates or degrees. Some
instructors have argued that students who want to learn English as a survival
skill, to communicate with co-workers or doctors, should be able to do that at
the college, says Mr. Wetstein.

But policy makers and
associations want to see a single figure: completions. How many students
graduated? How many didn’t? It’s hard to measure people’s personal and social
development. “The traditional benchmarks for success don’t apply,” he

The intangibles that
community colleges offer, Mr. Wetstein says, are being lost in the completion
movement led by the Obama administration and nonprofit groups.

“The community is
being stripped out of community college,” he says. “It’s incredibly
painful to watch.”

It’s become harder for
some students to enroll in English-as-a-second-language courses at San Joaquin
Delta College. The institution has eliminated its lower-level ESL courses
because of budget cuts.

Matthew Wetstein,
interim vice president for instruction at San Joaquin Delta College, says the
changes his college has undertaken have been difficult to watch. “To me,
it’s like we are turning our back on the students most likely to benefit from
our help.”

San Joaquin Delta no
longer offers GED-test preparation. It refers students to other providers, such
as the San Joaquin County’s Career and Technical EducationCenter (above).

While many elementary
English-as-a-second-language classes have been cut, Yi Shen is one of the more
fortunate students; she can still study English at San Joaquin Delta College.




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