n this paper, we are discussing what mindset individuals mus
Can you review the following article and help me write a lit review about the topic: What is the relationship between creativity and career advance?
Business Creativity and Literature Review
In this paper, we are discussing what mindset individuals must have to be successful in business. As this is playing an increasingly important part, in helping to determine how successful a firm will be in the future.
Problem and Proposition
One of the most misunderstood ideas is human intelligence, when it comes to success in the business world. Part of the reason for this, is because most people will assume that they can go to college and receive a good education. At which point, they should have those skills that will keep them in demand for the rest of their lives. As they can use this, to help them to have a marketable trade that is addressing the needs of the general public. On the surface, this appears to be true, as those with higher levels of formal education have lower unemployment rates. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the below table from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (which is highlighting the unemployment rates for each group).
Unemployment Rate for the Civilian Population over 25 Years Old
Less than High School 13.8%
High School 9.6%
Associate Degree 8.3%
Bachelor`s Degree 4.4%
("Employment News Release," 2011)
These figures are significant, because they are showing that the levels of education will have an impact on the unemployment rate for a particular demographic.
However, globalization and the lingering recession have made it more difficult for everyone to find consistent employment. The reason why, is because these factors have been placing pressure on wages by forcing them lower. A good example of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University. They found that that between 2009 and 2010 the average salary for a recent college graduate declined to $27,000.00 per year. This is down from the $30,000.00 that was reported previously with a decline of 10% before taking inflation into account. These numbers are significant, because they are showing that large amounts of college graduates are having trouble finding work inside their career fields. As a result, this is an indication that most people`s minds are not functioning at an empowering level that will allow them to take advantage of new opportunities. (Rampell, 2009)
Problem: Creativity and Business
In order for corporations to be able to compete in the future, they need to have everyone using their formalized education. While at the same time, they must be able to: think on their feet, have creativity and flexibility. However, the problem is that most firms do not utilize their talent as effectively as they should. Over the course of time, this gives an organization a considerable disadvantage when competing against other companies. This is when there is the realistic possibility that they could be slow to respond to the needs of customer (which will lead to a loss in market share).
A good example of this occurred with General Motors and the Chevy Volt. What happened was that the company has been developing hybrid technology in the 1990`s called the EV1. At the time, oil prices were so low that management did not see the value in producing these kinds of cars. The reason why, is because executives did not have any kind of creativity or forward thinking. Instead, they were focused on building those products to meet current demand. The problem is that this approach, made the company unable to adjust to shifts in the marketplace. Once this occurred, it meant that the Volt would be introduced in 2007 after companies such as: Toyota and Nissan had been selling their own vehicles for years. This is important, because it shows how management was unable to use their minds to help the firm adapt with these transformations. If executives had been focusing differently, this could have saved the company from going into bankruptcy. (Voelcker, 2007)
Proposition A: Creativity is Important and Business Success relies on Employee Creativity.
To effectively help a business to be able to compete in the future, the firm must use employee creativity to deal with the challenges they are facing. Evidence of this can be seen in an article that was written by Pfeiffer (1999). He found that in order for any corporation to be successful they must embrace a number of different principals as a part of their strategy. To include: using common sense, having flexibility and working well with employees. As Pfeiffer determined, that these practices are being embraced by the most successful companies around the world. This means that all firms must begin to listen to and understand the ideas of their employees. The reason why is, they can provide everyone with specific ideas that will help a business respond to the needs of customers. This is when they will be able to maintain their market share and effectively adjust to changes that are occurring. (Pfeiffer, 1999, pp. 37 - 48) The information from this source is useful, because it is illustrating how employees are playing a central role in determining the success of a business in the future. As a result, executives must listen to everyone`s ideas to: see what changes are taking place and how they can evolve with them.
Proposition B: Some Businesses do not maximize Employee Creativity.
There are some firms that do not encourage employee creativity. This is because they follow the standard authoritarian model. This is when the management will tell staff members: what their roles are and their expectations in completing these specifications. If there is any kind of deviating from the process, it will mean that the individual will face greater amounts of scrutiny from executives. This is because they are deviating from the standard procedures that are used to produce a particular product or service. Over the course of time, this can lead to a reduction in market share and earnings. As, this focus will mean that the business will embrace strategies that worked in the past. ("Leadership Styles," 2011)
Proposition C: Although Business Creativity relies on Employee Creativity some do not maximize Employee Creativity.
The problem with most firms is that they do not use employee creativity or they are embracing it on a limited basis. This is troubling, because it means that a particular company will not be able to adapt to changes in the markets. Once this occurs, is when the odds increase that they will slowly lose customers and sales. This is due to the fact that they are not addressing their basic needs. As a result, all firms must listen to the ideas of their employees and apply them to situations that will help the corporation to remain competitive. This is what the most successful businesses are using to achieve their goals and dominate their industry. (Pfeiffer, 1999, pp. 37 - 48)
Clearly, those organizations that value their employees and have a different mindset are most successful. As this, allows them to improve their competitive position. Over the course of time, this helps a firm to provide customers with those products and services they are demanding. This is the point that they are able use common sense thinking to give them an advantage over their competitors.
The notion that creativity can improve workplace performance is not a novel idea. Many organizations that have adopted the flat organizational structure have come to realize that allowing employees some leeway in using their creative ideas can lead to increased productivity and improved problem solving abilities. Allen (2010) discusses how the chemical dopamine affects creativity in the brain. Creativity is no longer thought of as a process that merely takes place in the frontal lobe. It is the production of the chemical dopamine that contributes to creative thinking.
For many neuroscience researchers creativity is also connected to improved brain function in other areas such as mathematical intelligence and reasoning ability. "Both intelligence (in the IQ test sense) and creativity appear to be the products of widely distributed functional networks in the brain, which are at least partly independent of one another" (Allen, 2010). The author implies that if creativity is practiced it can improve networks in the rain, thereby improving other cognitive functions. "A basic assumption of the framework is that neural circuits that process specific information to yield noncreative combinations of that information are the same neural circuits that generate creative or novel combinations of that information" (Dietrich, 2004, p. 2012).
For many researchers the link between creativity and cognitive function is an issue of current debate that questions whether we can afford to forego creativity and focus on achievement alone. The controversy among educators about whether California schools should allow children outdoor play time is highlighted in Beer (2004). Some educators believe that schools should focus solely on the essentials and forget about creative play time that involves outdoor play. Beer (2004) points out that "in a recent California study, students raised their test scores 27 percent when they were taught outside." Devall (1982) cites several studies which suggest creativity and cognitive abilities are not related, when creativity is measured in terms of the Barron Welsh Art Scale. However, it must be understood that art ability is a single aspect of creativity.
Within most organizations a specific type of corporate culture exists. Stommes & Aderman (1990) suggest that members of an organization tend to take on characteristics of the corporate culture which increase in intensity with the amount of time spent working for the organization. Therefore, if a culture of creativity is desired the organization that adopts a culture of creativity will foster creativity in new members, who will become increasingly creative over time. Strommes & Aderman (1990) also suggest that stability or the level of change within an industry and an organization can encourage or discourage creativity. The premise is that organizations with greater stability will foster leaders who are more practical while organizations that are less predictable and subject to change tend to foster leaders who are innovative.
Results of a study conducted by Santanen (2002) suggest that creativity is more likely to be utilized when an individual possesses knowledge in a broad range of unrelated subjects than when an individual possesses knowledge in closely related subjects. The results support the notion that a well-rounded individual is more likely to succeed in achieving his or her life goals and may contribute more to creative solutions in the workplace. Santanen`s work is related to that of Beer (2004) in which students who are given an opportunity for creative play that is different from the classroom environment is able to achieve more.
Employment News Release. (2011). BLS. Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t04.htm
Leadership Styles. (2011). NW Link. Retrieved from: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html
Pfeiffer, J. (1999). Putting People First. The Academy of Management Executives, 13 (2), 37 - 48.
Rampell, C. (2011). Many with New College Degree. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/19/business/economy/19grads.html?_r=1
Voelcker, J. (2007). Lithium Batteries. Retrieved from: http://spectrum.ieee.org/green-tech/advanced-cars/lithium-batteries-for-hybrid-cars
Allen, J.S. (2010). Creativity, the brain, and evolution. Psychology Today (Online). Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/lives-the-brain/201004/creativity-the-brain-
Beer, B. (2004). The big question. Backpacker, 36(4), 44. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Devall, Y. (1982). A study of some cognitive and creative characteristics and their relationship to reading comprehension in gifted and non-gifted fifth grade students. (Doctoral
dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations and theses.
Dietrich, A. (2004). The cognitive neuroscience of creativity. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(6), 1011, 26. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Santanen, E. (2002). Directed brainstorming and the cognitive network model of creativity: An
empirical investigation of cognitive factors related to the formation of creative solutions using an electronic brainstorming environment. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations and theses.
Stommes, J. & Aderman, M. (1990). Creativity, style, personality, and cognitive ability measures as a function of managerial level. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations and theses.