21. Archaea and Bacteria are examples of a) prokaryotes b) eukaryotes
22. How many centimeters (cm) are there in a meter? a) 1 b) 10 c) 100 d) 1,000 e) 1,000,000
23. A scientist reports the weight of a substance is 500 mg. How many kg is this?. Solve this problem using (a) the ladder method and (b) using dimensional analysis.
24. A micrometer is one ____________ of a meter, and one gigaton is _______ tons.
25. Use the ladder method and express answers in dimensional analysis: (a) 1. 25cs = ?ms (b) 500 daL = ? kL (c) 60.54 kg = mg
26. Pretend that you are performing an experiment to see whether Miracle Grow (fertilizer) increases plant growth. 100 plants of the same species are placed in pots and then divided equally into two groups (A and B). The groups receive the same sediment, water, sunlight, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. However, you put fertilizer in group B pots, but not in group A pots. After two weeks you measure the height of each plant and calculate the average growth for each group. a) form a logical hypothesis for this experiment b) at the start of the experiment, what does the scientist do to avoid being biased? c) identify the control group d) identify the experimental group e) identify the constants f) identify the independent variable g) identify the dependent variable h) which system of measurement do you use for this experiment? (hint: scientists use measurements like grams, liters, and kilometers) i) which variable goes on the Y-axis, and what is its name? j) which variable goes on the x-axis, and what is its name? k) pretend that after 2 weeks the average height of the control group was much bigger than that of experimental group. Do these results support or refute your hypothesis? l) List several potential sources of error (aka, confounding variables) that could explain the result above. m) Because you are trying to only change one variable, what kind of experiment is this?
27. Match the correct characteristic of life to the descriptions in the table (some answers used more than once). a) has cells b) reproduction c) has genetic code (DNA and/or RNA) d) growth and development e) gathers materials and energy f) responds to environment g) homeostasis h) evolution
1. Cows eating grass 2. She had a headache, so she went to bed. 3. You grow hair under your armpits during puberty. 4. Bacteria dividing asexually 5. Land mammals turned into sea mammals over millions of years. 6. Living organisms have genes which are the blueprints to make proteins (hint: double helix).
7. He rapidly removed his hand after touching the hot tea kettle. 8. Your parents’ gametes (egg and sperm) combined to make you! 9. Looking through the microscope you see plant cells of a leaf. 10. The fish displayed camouflage as the shark grew close. 11. Keeping your temperature at 98.6 deg F 12. Keeping the sugar content in your blood constant
28. Put the following in order from smallest to largest: biosphere, molecules, cells, population, tissues, organ systems, organs, ecosystem, community, organism
29. If a virus relies on a host (ex: human) in order to reproduce, is it by definition alive? Explain.
30. In science, do we try to “prove” or “test” our hypotheses?
31. Science is self-correcting. Explain.
32. Why is skepticism good in science?
33. When scientists disagree about some natural or unnatural phenomenon, it leads to more______. When many scientific studies all point to the same conclusion, a ___________ may be reached, as is the case with __________ change.
34. Label each of the following as either qualitative or quantitative. a) The fish has spots on its back b) The fish has eight fins
35. Label each of the following as either objective or subjective. a) Fish live in water b) The fish is ugly
36. What question do you ask yourself when trying to identify the control group? The experimental group?
37. What is an alternative name for independent variable? Dependent variable?
38. What question do you ask yourself when trying to identify the independent variable? The dependent variable?
39. A controlled experiment is one wherein only ___________ variable is changed. All other variables stay the same between the control and experimental groups and are called ____________ variables or ____________.
40. Factors that influence the results and often decrease precision among values are called _________ variables.
41. Which data set would be preferred by a scientist and why? (a) 5, 6, 5, 7, 7, 6, 5, 6 or (b) 1, 7, 5, 10, 8, 13, 4, 8
42. What happens to the density of water as it starts to freeze?
43. The freezing and boiling points of water are respectively ______ and ________ in Celsius, and _______ and _______ in Fahrenheit.
44. The number of protons in an atom equals the number of ___________.
45. Solve the following calculations without a calculator using the ladder method: (a) 15,000 m = ____dam (b) 25,203 mL = ____kL
46. Calculate the error bars size (using the average difference among the data values) for the data set: 3, 5, 4, 3.
47. Inference or observation? a) The goby fishes went into the burrow as the predatory fish grew closer. b) The fossil remains lacked hands, so the creature likely had to bite and shake large chunks out of prey, or swallow prey whole. c) The recently discovered deep-sea frilled shark has an eel-like body suggesting it lives among the rocks. d) The abundance of plastic bags on the beach were thought to come from the storm drain. e) When oil blocked the blow hole of the whale, the whale made a loud sound indicating it was stressed. f) The absence of one of its arms indicated that the octopus had been recently attacked by a predator. g) The harpooned whale let out a cry of pain. h) As the shark approached the school of fish, it started displaying erratic behavior. i) Baby sea turtles hatched from the sand at night to reduce the chances of being eaten. j) The whale beached itself due to sound pollution from ships at sea.
48. Explain the relationship among hypothesis, theory, and fact.
49. List the steps of the scientific method in order.
50. A marine biologist observes that mako sharks, sardines, and salmon leap out of the water. An example of induction from these observations would be _______________. 51. An example of deduction from the general statement, “All fishes lay eggs” would be __________________.
52. To reduce personal bias, scientists use a technique called _________________________.
53. Why is junk science so prevalent in today’s world?
54. If there is enough time and money, scientists will often use several experimental groups in a controlled experiment. What is the benefit of this?
55. What is the relationship among sample size (replication), precision among data values, error bar size, and confidence in results.
56. Does high accuracy and low precision exist in darts? In experiments in nature? 57. The independent variable is sometimes called the “cause”, whereas the dependent variable is called the ___________.