Jul 22, 2017 Research papers

Analysis of Disaster Management of the Hillsborough Stadium Disaster

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Analysis of Disaster Management of the Hillsborough Stadium Disaster

INSTRUCTIONS:

Assessment Item Two: Case Study Assignment

APA 6 EDITION.

Imagine you have been asked to provide expert commentary on an event to a senior level of government (e.g. A Minister). Students will undertake an examination of an event that has occurred. A commentary of the event should be prepared including: 

1. A description of the event. 

2. An analysis of how the management of the event accorded with the principles of effective disaster management throughout the cycle of preparedness, response and recovery. 

3. A discussion of how the lessons learned from the event (both what went well and what did not go well) may be applied in the future. 



•The assignment should demonstrate your analytical abilities, an understanding of the basic principles and the ability to identify and critically analyse the issues that you identified. 

-Students should undertake this task individually, although it is recognised that individual students may elect to examine the same event. Students may select their own events or seek advice from the lecturers and Unit Coordinator. You would be strongly advised to discuss your selection with one of the staff during the block program. 

•There is no particular word limit for this assessment, but it is recommended that you stay within 1500-3000 words. It should be noted that brevity can represent clarity of expression.

•See the attached marking criteria and aim for highest mark. See the attached documents

•you can use some of the references in the study guide and some you bring

CONTENT:
Analysis of Disaster Management of the Hillsborough Stadium Disaster NameInstitution IntroductionSocial places and social events are always big attractions for huge crowds. In the modern society, the convergence of large crowds at social events and other public institutions is a common phenomenon. Some public meeting points, such as the Pennsylvania Station and New York Grand Central Terminal in the United States accommodate over 200, 000 commuters daily. Similarly, famous buildings such as the New York World Trade Center office was reported to accommodate around 50, 000 workers, while it received 80, 000 visitors each weekday (Weidinger, 2010). However, nowhere is this scenario more common than in sports, where up to 60-70, 000 people throng into stadiums to watch live matches. This is because the concentration of people in sporting events is high as more spectators are packed into a limited space within stadiums. Because of the high concentration of people at sporting events, it is easy for disastrous events such as stampedes to occur. Nevertheless, there have been tragic stampedes in religious, political, and musical events over the last 30 years, which suggest that any large crowd can potentially end tragically in the absence of proper crowd management (Weidinger, 2010). Crowd size is one of the major factors that determine the likelihood of a stampede or panic to occur. Other factors include the level of organization of the event, and the nature of the crowd, such as whether it was a spontaneous crowd (such as protest crowds) or it is planned. In this regard, avoiding disasters in large crowds involves anticipating the movement of people in panic situations, an understanding of what causes people to panic (e.g. lack of personal space in overcrowded places) and how people react in a panic situation. Description of a Disaster Event: The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster (15 April, 1989)The Hillsborough Stadium disaster in Sheffield, England, occurred during a match between Liverpool FC and Nottingham Forest FC in an FA Cup semi-final (Eason, 2009). When the gates to the stadium were opened, Liverpool fans were allowed to continue streaming into their allotted sections of the stadium, which were already overcrowded. The crowing inside the stadium resulted in people overcrowding at the entrance, prompting the senior police officer in charge to order for the opening of an exit gate with the intention of easing the pressure at the entrance (Gibson & Conn, 2012). The exit gate led directly to a standing tunnel, which in turn led to the already overcrowded sections designated for the Liverpool fans. In past occasions, the tunnel was usually sealed off once the seating enclosures were full. On this fateful occasion, however, the tunnel remained open and unattended. Because of the absence of officials to direct and regulate the movement of people into the stadium, those getting in continued to push those inside toward the fence railings that were inte...


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