Jul 24, 2017

Results and discussion

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Results and discussion


The results section should: recap your hypothesis specify the statistical analysis used, and the variables included describe the results in English provide the numeric results in APA style (being sure that the numbers are not the subjects of the sentence) give any additional needed information (e.g., means and standard deviations of comparison groups) specify whether the hypothesis was supported The discussion section should: describe your results compare and contrast your findings and methods to those of previous research, providing citations and providing insight of why you may have found what you did discuss strengths and limitations, citing previous research to support your ideas, and speculating on how the strengths and limitations may have had an impact on the results revisit the broad phenomenon, providing in-depth discussion (supported by citations of previous research) of where research should go from here, and why provide a conclusion that incorporates your findings and your broad phenomenon PS: The filed saved as "Group 6.sav" has the results from our study when we put it in SPSS. The other one saved as "discussion" is a brief outline that was done.



Summarize findings:

Self Esteem & Attachment Scales= reliable

Good because they are standard measures and we want them to be reliable

Lying Scale= not reliable

GOOD! Because we didn’t expect it to be- we think ppl shouldn’t lie the same in every situation

Significant 1-tailed correlation secure att x self esteem p=.03

We expected secure attachment to have high self esteem

Significant 1-tailed correlation insecure att x self esteem p=.01

Inverse correlation= we expected insecure att to have low self esteem

Significant factorial ANOVA self esteem x att x lie% p=.02

Shows that there IS a relationship between the 3, which was our hypo

Graph shows an interaction as well

Also shows that while securely att don’t vary much in lie % based on self esteem, that insecure DOES! Low SE much more likely to lie than high SE

No interaction shown for att style x lie big/sm

We expected there to be one

Significant relationship between SE and big/sm lie p=.05

There is a relationship btwn lying & att- supports our hypo

Graph also shows interaction

Also shows that while high SE is slightly less likely to lie for big, low SE is MUCH more likely to lie for small and MUCH less likely to lie for big

Compare & Contrast

Majority of studies investigated regarding lying used a social interaction journal to record daily interactions and when the participant lied and when they were honest over the course of 1 week (Campbell, Depaulo & Kashy, Gunthrie & Kunkel)

We couldn’t use this method bc not  feasible for us

All other studies= pen & paper

Ours was online

Other studies focused on lying specifically (DePaulo & Kashy, Gunthrie & Kunkel)

We used deceit, with lying being a form of deceit (Turner)

Brought in SE and Attach as predictors of lying behavior

Others simply explained characteristics of different SE levels or Attach styles (Creasy, Powers, Campbell)

We proposed lying as a way to avoid conflict

Actually asked in demographics if you have ever been lied to/rxn lied to others/rxn and found most ppl have lied and thought being lied to was worse than lying (supports Gunthrie & Kunkel)

Limits & Weakness

Couldn’t do diary so our data may not be as reliable because it is hypothetical situations and not actual situations

Lying/deceit esp in romantic relationships is sensitive subject- social desirability effects (want to look better) may interfere with honest answering

Many answers left blank, limiting power and reliability (prob bc of social desirability)

Scales for SE and Attach were reliable= good measuring

Scale for lying wasn’t reliable- but we didn’t want it to be. Our hypo was that ppl lie diff in diff situations

Situational response= differentiates us from others while also giving us insight into freq lie & avoiding conflict (which there are no measuring scales for)

Predominantly female (73%)- possibly affected results

Avg age= 26.75, not many older participants, if we had some may have changed some data

Ways to improve/future studies:

Find shorter attachment scale or ways to condense (18 measures long, many ppl didn’t finish)

Expand upon situational lying, especially “big” lies

More evenly distributed gender & age

Cross-culturally may be diff= all studies focused on US

We did not compare old to young, and previous research showed eveidence that young lie 2x as much as old

Find a way to incorporate other deceitful techniques- according to Turner there are 5 types and we only looked at lying and diversionary

Investigate the relationship between time a conflict has been on-going and the frequency of lying= i.e. if you’ve been fighting over something for 2 mon more likely to avoid conflict vs fighting for 1 day

Investigate poss differences between romantic relationships that are dating and marriage…. Insecurity of dating might affect propensity to lie where the permanency of marriage may deter lying


Results and discussionStudent:Professor:Course title:Date:Results People engage in deception in relationships because they fear their dark side, or negative aspects about life that may anger or offend their partners and lead to termination of the relationship. In essence, people lie differently in different situations. The specific hypotheses are: the attachment style correlates with self-esteem levels, and together they predict the likelihood of using deceit; secondly, regardless of attachment style, people who are in romantic relationships are more likely to deceive their partner in order to avoid conflict, particularly in regards to small issues.The Self Esteem and Attachment Scales used in this study were reliable; they are basically the standard measures. The Lying Scale was not reliable. For this research, the figure below illustrates the participants used. Figure 1: participantsFigure 2: Attachment styleFigure 3: Self EsteemCorrelations: Secure Attachment x High Self-Esteem r = .24, p = .03 Insecure Attachment x High Self-Esteem R = -.29, p = .01Figure 4: Estimated Marginal Means of LIEPERCENTFactorial ANOVA: Self Esteem x Attachment x Lie FrequencyF (1,48) = 5.63, p = .02The results showed that 79% of participants indicated that they may have lied to their partner, hidden information, exaggerated or given half-truths. There is a relationship between lying and attention, and this supports the research hypothesis. The results also reveal that while self-esteem is slightly less likely to lie for big, low self-esteem is much more likely to lie for small and much less likely to lie for big. DiscussionThe results indicate that there is a significant relationship between self-esteem and lying in an intimate relationship. Most of the previous research studies regarding lying utilized a social interaction journal to record everyday interactions, and when the participant were honest or lied over the course of one week for instance the study conducted by Guthrie and Kunkel (2013). This method could not have been used in our research since it was not feasibl...

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