Jul 26, 2017

Current and emerging technologies for genotyping Campylobacter

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Current and emerging technologies for genotyping Campylobacter


This is literature review about the current and emerging technologies for genotyping Campylobacter. It is specific for the genotyping technologies. LITERATURE REVIEW HEADINGS; Summary: no more than one page. Introduction: brief overview of the scope of the literature review. Coverage of the literature : contains a description of the literature in detail. Sub-sections should be used and figures can be used where necessary. Discussion : In this section you should discuss relative merits of the various technologies in relation to their projected application, or GAPS in knowledge that need further research and the broader significance of the reviewed literature. Conclusions : this section should be brief and relate the review to the aims of the literature . Bibliography : should contain all references cited in the literature review. References to refereed journals and primary sources are strongly preferred. * This order should only focus on the genotyping technologies for Campylobacter. * One of the subheading can be about the future direction. * NO need to mention in details the feature of the organism , its outbreaks and its pathogenesis or the phenotyping technologies. Kind regards

Current and emerging technologies for genotyping CampylobacterName:Grade Course:Tutor`s Name:Date Submitted:SUMMARYSpecies of the Campylobacter have been the most infective bacteria and pathogens that have been reported in both developing and the already developed countries around the globe. Genotyping of these bacteria help in identification, protection and treatment of the effects of these bacterial infections. In genotyping of the Campylobacter species, different methods and techniques have used which include fla typing, ribotyping, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR), pulse field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA and the Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST).In their effectiveness, these techniques offer different applications in terms of the complexity, size of the sample and the cost of acquiring and maintaining the equipments for genotyping. For instance, in dealing with short period outbreaks such as in chickens, fla typing is a faster and effective method used. Consequently, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and random amplified Polymorphic DNA are reliable for global genotyping and epidemiological researchers.LITERATURE REVIEW 1 IntroductionCampylobacter species are among the most prevalent bacterial enteric pathogens in both developed and developing nations. This review will only focus on the genotypic methods. Genotyping methods have been to identify the strains causing outbreaks due to the bacteria Campylobacter. In their applications, the methods of genotyping the bacteria have been used to identify the causes of infections and therefore trace the transmissions in animals and in human beings.The methods in this review include fla typing, ribotyping, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR), pulse field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA and the Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Their techniques in genotyping is deeply described, identifying their respective strengths and weaknesses in genotyping and what technological advances have been achieved and are being undertaken to improve their effectiveness. Moreover, global laboratory interactions amongst researchers in exchanging the data and having reference laboratories has and will help in having a formal standardized and normalized database that will be electronically available for portability. 1 CampylobacterThe Campylobacter is a genus that encompasses a family of bacteria that basically attacks and infects the gastrointestinal tracts of its host. Some of the pathogenic species of the bacteria include the Campylobacter jejuni and the Campylobacter coli. These two are pathogenic to both human beings and also in animals. The eventual outcome of their infections is common acute human bacterial enteritis (Wassenaar et al, 2000). The main cause of infections to human beings has been attributed to the eating and also being in contact with contaminated meat from poultry. Research has s...

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